Friday, December 27, 2019

The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 1001 Words

Nick Carraway’s personality is slowly revealed itself throughout the novel, The Great Gatsby. This occurs through certain events throughout his journey, if you will, and how he is influenced when he befriends Jay Gatsby: a wealthy young man who lives in a mansion next door to Nick in West Egg. Nick is both a character in the novel and the narrator. He is usually behind the scenes during confrontations between other characters, yet he is the one who brings these characters together through multiple occurrences. For example, when Jay Gatsby and Daisy Buchanan meet for the first time, in Nicks house, after Gatsby returns to win her heart back. A term to describe him as a narrator is a â€Å"peripheral narrator†. He is like an outsider, who isn’t irrelevant or the center of attention. He also prefers to â€Å"reserve all judgments† (Fitzgerald 1), as he says in the first page of chapter one. This is because he likes to listen to the stories of the characters h e meets, and since he refrains from judging before knowing the person, it allows him to judge accordingly to the characters and their stories. This allows Nick to adapt to his surroundings and act accordingly since he is almost like a foreign since he is new to living life in New York City. Nick comes off as a character who is much more distant as well as more practical and down to earth than the other characters. Early on in the novel, the reader knows that he/she can trust Nick as a narrator because of his first impression. TrustShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faà §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughout its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1343 Words   |  6 PagesHonors English 10 Shugart 18 Decemeber 2014 The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald s 1925 novel The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story, a mystery, and a social commentary on American life. The Great Gatsby is about the lives of four wealthy characters observed by the narrator, Nick Carroway. Throughout the novel a mysterious man named Jay Gatsby throws immaculate parties every Saturday night in hope to impress his lost lover, Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby lives in a mansion on West Egg across from DaisyRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Gatsby The Jazz Age was an era where everything and anything seemed possible. It started with the beginning of a new age with America coming out of World War I as the most powerful nation in the world (Novel reflections on, 2007). As a result, the nation soon faced a culture-shock of material prosperity during the 1920’s. Also known as the â€Å"roaring twenties†, it was a time where life consisted of prodigality and extravagant parties. Writing based on his personal experiences, author F. ScottRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1166 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Haze F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in a time that was characterized by an unbelievable lack of substance. After the tragedy and horrors of WWI, people were focused on anything that they could that would distract from the emptiness that had swallowed them. Tangible greed tied with extreme materialism left many, by the end of this time period, disenchanted. The usage of the literary theories of both Biographical and Historical lenses provide a unique interpretation of the Great Gatsby centered aroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words   |  3 PagesIn F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. Gatsby’s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of w ealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay970 Words   |  4 Pagesrespecting and valuing Fitzgerald work in the twenty-first century? Fitzgerald had a hard time to profiting from his writing, but he was not successful after his first novel. There are three major point of this essay are: the background history of Fitzgerald life, the comparisons between Fitzgerald and the Gatsby from his number one book in America The Great Gatsby, and the Fitzgerald got influences of behind the writing and being a writer. From childhood to adulthood, Fitzgerald faced many good andRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2099 Words   |  9 Pagesauthor to mirror his life in his book. In his previous novels F. Scott Fitzgerald drew from his life experiences. He said that his next novel, The Great Gatsby, would be different. He said, â€Å"In my new novel I’m thrown directly on purely creative work† (F. Scott Fitzgerald). He did not realize or did not want it to appear that he was taking his own story and intertwining it within his new novel. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, he imitates his lifestyle through the Buchanan family to demonstrateRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1607 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Gatsby is an American novel written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the themes of the book is the American Dream. The American Dream is an idea in which Americans believe through hard work they can achieve success and prosperity in the free world. In F. Scott Fitzgerald s novel, The Great Gatsby, the American Dream leads to popularity, extreme jealousy and false happiness. Jay Gatsby’s recent fortune and wealthiness helped him earn a high social position and become one of the mostRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1592 Words   |  7 PagesMcGowan English 11A, Period 4 9 January 2014 The Great Gatsby Individuals who approach life with an optimistic mindset generally have their goals established as their main priority. Driven by ambition, they are determined to fulfill their desires; without reluctance. These strong-minded individuals refuse to be influenced by negative reinforcements, and rely on hope in order to achieve their dreams. As a man of persistence, the wealthy Jay Gatsby continuously strives to reclaim the love of hisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1646 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920s witnessed the death of the American Dream, a message immortalized in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Initially, the American Dream represented the outcome of American ideals, that everyone has the freedom and opportunity to achieve their dreams provided they perform honest hard work. During the 1920s, the United States experienced massive economic prosperity making the American Dream seem alive and strong. However, in Fitzgerald’s eyes, the new Am erican culture build around that

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Negative Effects of Vaccinations Essay - 1067 Words

A parent can’t go a week without hearing about vaccinations and the problems they will cause our children. Generally the advertised negative effects of the vaccinations are immediate, whereas others may indicate they cause problems later in life. In the day and age of the internet, what is a person to do? Get informed. Don’t take the information that is presented to you on Facebook, Twitter, email, or through the grapevine as science. Vaccinations have become a very taboo subject for parents today. There is plenty of mis-information out there on the downsides of vaccinations, but none stand up to scientific inspection. Where has the concern about vaccinations come from? When the majority of vaccines were developed they were during a†¦show more content†¦One of the general concerns of the anti-vaccination movement is that it is dangerous to give such a large amount of vaccinations to an infant at one time. This is commonly referred to as the â€Å"pincushion ef fect† among this group. The concern is that a child’s immune system is not advanced enough to handle such an overload of diseases. A child certainly receives what seems to be an extreme amount of vaccinations within the first years of life. The vaccination appointments are always one a parent dreads. Not only about the pain the child will go through, but is it really safe for your child? According to Michael Smith, MD and Charles Woods, MD of the University of Louisville School of Medicine they did not find the adverse pincushion effect to be true. â€Å"Timely vaccination during infancy has no adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes 7 to 10 years later. This data may reassure parents who are concerned that children receive too many vaccines too soon.† The CDC states that â€Å"an infant’s immune system is more than ready to respond to the very small number of weakened and killed infectious agents in vaccines. From the time they are born, babies a re exposed to thousands of germs and other antigens in the environment and their immune system isShow MoreRelatedNegative Effects Of Vaccinations1524 Words   |  7 Pagesgain immunity from deadly smallpox, the vaccination has greatly reduced the rate of infection and death by vaccine-preventable diseases. However, when receiving the vaccination became a compulsory law in the mid-1800’s in the UK, protestors shot up expressing that the laws go against their civil liberty. This was the beginning of the anti-vaccination movement, a movement which has not ceased to this day, full of people with deeply rooted beliefs that vaccinations aren’t as beneficial as the general publicRead MoreVaccinations Should Be Mandatory Vaccinations1495 Words   |  6 PagesThe government should mandate vaccinations, and although it would sacrifice the liberty and choice for public health it would keep the well-being and health of everyone much more safe and away from the risk of disease. M ost people agree that vaccinations should be mandated because of how being vaccinated keeps people safer in public environments since being vaccinated helps stop diseases from being spread, as proven by science, but people who do not agree with vaccination mandation most of the timeRead MoreVaccinations For A Healthy Lifestyle1656 Words   |  7 Pageson vaccinations to be maintain a healthy lifestyle. Although vaccinations can fight off disease they can also affect kids in negative ways. There are also parents who depend on certain vaccinations too much which can cause more problems in the long run. As the amount of kids who are not vaccinated grows, the amount of diseases that were once wiped away start to return. When kids are born they are right away taken to get vaccinations. One of the reasons that young kids need more vaccinations is becauseRead MoreThe Importance Of Vaccinations1372 Words   |  6 PagesVaccinations have proven time and time again to be an effective form of preventive medicine, but in recent research it has been associated with serious developmental problems. The controversy over whether childhood vaccines are actually the cause of these development issues has been an ongoing debate for 2 centuries and is even more prominent in society now as more research is becoming available to the public, even if some of it says there is no link between the two. Parents and guardians now alsoRead MoreCompulsory Vaccinations And The Public Health Intervention Essay1324 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversy is when it comes to compulsory vaccinations, the public health intervention will always have negative or harmful effects in combination with the benefits of compulsory vaccinations. For those that stand behind the argument that immunizations are unnecessary in our children, have argued that the vaccine industry has misrepresented the safety of vaccines. They also have argued that they have covered up information regarding certain vaccinations to ga in from the financial standard. In orderRead MoreThe Case Of Mandatory Vaccination922 Words   |  4 Pagestherefore we must further justify a policy of mandatory vaccination. Further justification for mandatory vaccinations is logically discerned by reading John Stuart Mill’s and Arthur Okun’s views on rights. In On Liberty, Mill articulates that the only form of acceptable coercion is through the â€Å"harm principle† or â€Å"other regarding.† This translates as no one can or should want to harm their neighbor; therefore, society can willingly accept vaccination to protect others (Colgrove 2006, 4). Opponents argueRead MoreShould Children Vaccinations Be Mandatory?1492 Words   |  6 Pagesdeveloping vaccinations that help the body create antibodies, which help fight away diseases, and give the body immunity. I believe that forced vaccinations in children should be mandatory as they have the potential to prevent life threatening diseases, and save countless lives. Though many are against forced vaccinations and say they can cause mental illnesses or brain damage, this has not been proven. The rewards far out way the slight r isk, if risk at all of the vaccination having side effects. TheRead MoreEssay The Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines1390 Words   |  6 Pageswhat it does. Nonetheless, there are times when this extent of autonomy may be skewed by beliefs and ideas that may not be entirely accurate. For instance, in the past decade or so, there had been a widespread belief among opposers of mandatory vaccinations and vaccines in general that the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine caused autism in children as a result of a misleading report by Andrew Wakefield of the U.K. Because of Wakefield’s report in The Lancet, which has since been disprovenRead MoreThe Importance Of Vaccination1241 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause they do not believe in vaccination? Vaccinations help save lives by building immunity to deadly diseases, but people are willing to risk lives just because their political beliefs or religious beliefs or skepticism keeps them from vaccinating their children. To make sure everyone in the community is safe from certain diseases, the government needs to make most vaccinations mandatory for every child. There are already a few state mandates regarding vaccinations needed, such as DTaP, HepatitisRead MoreThe Effects Of Vaccination And Its Effects On Children1728 Words   |  7 Pagesvaccinate yourself/ your child has become a very important question to ask yourself. With recent news of vaccinations having a possible link to autism and many other negative side effects, it has become increasingly more important to weigh the risks and the rewards of vaccinations. While this may be a risk, the risk of zero vaccinations worldwide would have an exponentially larger and more negative effect on the majority of the world. Vacinations are the key to achieving longevity in life not only for one

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Biology Moreton Bay Ecosystem and St Hellena Bay

Question: Discuss about theBiologyfor Moreton Bay Ecosystem and St Hellena Bay. Answer: Introduction Moreton Bay ecosystem is a rich habitat full of various species that cohabit together to form close relationship. They interact through two factors which include biotic and a biotic variable. In assessing these components the following tools and equipments can be used; techniques for differentiating the organism are done through different keys and field guides notes, utilization of sampling techniques such as underwater video cameras, gliders and sediment grabbers. Methods likely to be beneficial include measurement of data in the ecosystem i.e salinity levels, temperature and lighting exposure. Moreton Bay aquatic system is a natural environment where it is rich in marine habitat, plants and a variety of animals. The extended cover of mangroves is beneficial for birds shelter fish and other wild life animals, the habitat which supports rich variety of fauna and flora. The human contact is characterized by an ideal location for the human impact and cultural initiatives from the neighboring countries. Moreton Bay has a divers system of rich habitat and iconic species, the human population is slowly encroaching and it is a cause for alarm for the impacts which are currently, (Pantus Denninson, 2005). The biotic factors in the Moreton Bay ecology include the living organisms which exist in the ecosystem. It houses approximately 757 species combined of plants and animals. These factors coexist mutually in this intricate ecosystem and all living through creation of symbiotic relationship. The presence of bacteria in the bay plays a crucial role as biotic factor. They occur naturally and majorly found in the sewage pipes, they leave deposits in waterways , and leave sewage smell and effect on water, it has been investigated to causes no harm to the people or animal health. This rich ecosystem forms a close relationship with the fauna and flora through initiatives such as bird watching and planting of the indigenous flora in the ecosystem to create a sustenance relationship, (Hewson et al., 2001). Abiotic factors are those components of non living organisms like soils, weather and geographical positioning which have an impact on the environment, depending on the degree of severity. In Moreton Bay Region, sulfate soils which are in the low coastal areas have been found to have an impact on the soil. They form reactions with the oxygen and cause toxicity and acidity in the air. The effects of the soil on the environment are so broad and harm the environment; it affects the ecology through the killing of fish or causing diseases. The soils have been found to affect the flora and fauna and cause infrastructural damage which facilitates erosion. The mangroves cover is decreased and the animals are likely to fall on the same pattern as they depend on the food produced by the same affected soil components. Lack of food will lead to decrease in numbers in the population of creatures. Acid sulfates cane be harmful to the eyesights causing irritation and dermatitis to both human and ani mals. The impact on climate are evident, the tidal wave changes might affect the marine species, (Clouston, 2002). The response to any changes is the shift of the animals to safer climatic zones or succumbs to changing shift or change in climate. The geographical position is likely to have positive outcome to the ecosystem of Moreton Bay, it is strategically placed in between tropical and temperate waters, and this conditions allows the inhabitation of variety of fauna and flora thus providing a balanced and delicate marine ecosystem. Ways of Improving the Ecosystem Ways of improving the ecosystem at St Helena and Moreton Bay, include expansion of the Marine national park as at current state limits the high number of species from more effective interactions or alternatively to remove the Marine National park zone from the surrounding of St Helena zone. Another option is by creating a Marine National park around the Green island area. Choice of appropriate fishery management tools need to be deployed to manage the fish at the zone., (Van De Geer et al., 2013).The interaction created by the bacteria with water has made the resort to have regular checking to ensure the water is safe for human consumption, (Bunn et al., 2007). References Bunn, S. E., Abal, E. G., Greenfield, P. F., Tarte, D. M. (2007). Making the connection between healthy waterways and healthy catchments: South East Queensland, Australia. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 7(2), 93-100. Clouston, E. M. (2002). Linking The Ecological And Economic Values Of Wetlands: Acase Study Of The Wetlands Of Moreton Bay (Doctoral dissertation, Griffith University). Hewson, I., O'Neil, J. M., Fuhrman, J. A., Dennison, W. C. (2001). Virus?like particle distribution and abundance in sediments and overlying waters along eutrophication gradients in two subtropical estuaries. Limnology and Oceanography, 46(7), 1734-1746. Pantus, F. J., Dennison, W. C. (2005). Quantifying and evaluating ecosystem health: a case study from Moreton Bay, Australia. Environmental Management, 36(5), 757-771. Van De Geer, C., Mills, M., Adams, V. M., Pressey, R. L., McPhee, D. (2013). Impacts of the Moreton Bay Marine Park rezoning on commercial fishermen. Marine Policy, 39, 248-256.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Anonymous Christian As Described By Karl Rahner Religion Essay Essay Example

The Anonymous Christian As Described By Karl Rahner Religion Essay Paper I would wish to first start by giving a short life of Karl Rahner as described by the Karl Rahner Society. He was born in Freiburg, Germany, on March 5, 1904 and died in Innsbruck, Austria, on March 30, 1984. He entered the Jesuit order in 1922 and he was one of the most influential theologists in the Vatican II epoch. His essays covered a wide scope of subjects ; most of these issues were what concerned the Catholics from the 1940 s to the 1980 s. His essays provided many resources for both academic and pastoral divinity. He was rather popular in his native German-speaking states through his instruction, lectures, editorial labours and rank in erudite societies. He was published in international publications like Concilium. He had a big aggregation of plants 1651 publications ( 4744 including reissues and interlingual renditions ) ; He besides enjoyed a positive response of his parts by many Protestant minds. Rahner s influence became more apparent after his service as an official apostolic theological expert from1960 to 1965 before and during the Second Vatican Council. We will write a custom essay sample on The Anonymous Christian As Described By Karl Rahner Religion Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Anonymous Christian As Described By Karl Rahner Religion Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Anonymous Christian As Described By Karl Rahner Religion Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer To understand how Rahner arrives at his construct of the anon. Christian, it is of import to understand the footing of thoughts of Rahner. He was greatly influenced by Immanuel Kant, Heidegger, and the Belgian Jesuit Joseph Marechal. The footing of Rahner s ideas comes from a vision of the universe being a profound country of God s self-communication. Rahner s first two books were Spirit in the World and Hearer of the Word. Rahner s place, as written in his essays, was profoundly rooted in the Ignation manner of thought, believing that God is in all things, sacramental piousness, and devotedness to Jesus and the Catholic philosophy. Rahner addresses the anon. Christian in an interview provided to Rev. Norman Wong Cheong Sau in an article titled Karl Rahner s Concepts of the Anonymous Christian an Inclusivist View of Religions, he provided his personal definition of anon. Christian to Rev. Sau interviewer: We prefer the nomenclature harmonizing to which that a adult male is called an anonymous Christian who on the one manus has de facto accepted of his freedom this gracious self-offering on God s portion through religion, hope, and love, while on the other he is perfectly non yet a Christian at the societal degree ( through baptism and rank of the Church ) or in the sense of holding consciously objectified his Christian religion to himself in his ain head ( by explicit Christian religion ensuing from holding hearkened to the expressed message ) . We might hence, put it as follows: the anonymous Christian in our sense of the term is the heathen after the beginning of the Christian mission, who lives in the province of Christ s grace through religion, hope, and love, yet who has no expressed cognition of the fact that his life is orientated in grace-given redemption to Jesus Christ. A non-anonymous Christian for deficiency of a better term or a declared Christian is person who has accepted Christ and lives with the grace of God s grace, love, hope and apprehension. This individual declares himself a Christian, was baptized and lives by God s Torahs. Rahner bases his belief in the anon. Christian as person who lives a Christian life style but has non yet declared himself a true Christian. By declaring oneself a true Christian, harmonizing to Rahner, you must be baptized, attend mass and pray in the traditional standardised manner. This of class, includes life by God s Torahs and life in a Christ like mode. This individual declares themselves a Christian in every manner, the manner they talk, the manner they pray and their absolution from original wickedness. A good illustration of the declared Christian would be Mother Teresa. Mother Teresa acknowledged that she lived in the Grace of God and followed his words and instructions. She accepted Jesus as her manner to God. In believing that Jeus Christ is the lone manner to God would be to believe in an exclusivist mode. Harmonizing to Rahner there is more than one manner to make God. This would be the Inclusivist position. It accepts that Jesus is but merely one manner to God, but acknowledges that there are others. Rahner negotiations of the supernatural redemption for people who live in God s grace without the acknowledged rubric of Christian. The Inclusivist position is what has led to Karl Rahner s description of the anon. Christian. Harmonizing to Rahner it is non necessary to be a declared Christian to work your manner to God. In Pope John Paul II s visit to Mahatma Gandhi s grave The Pope put flower petals on the grave and said that followings of other faiths can be saved by Christ without being converted. This gave some popularity to Rahner s claim that any adult male who patterns a faith or acts harmonizing to natural jurisprudence and is blessed by God s grace is an anon. Christian, even if he does non wish to acknowledge it. Gandhi was a perfect illustration of this anon. Christian, although he did non name himself a Christian by name he lived in a Christ like mode, followed his faith dependably and exercised Christian attitudes to others, thereby populating in God s grace. There is a quotation mark in the Rahner Reader on Page 75 that best describes the consciousness utilized by Gandhi in being called an anon. Christian, The head of even the anon. Christian is raised to the supernatural order by the grace of Christ, doctrine is non strictly secular activity. The best of modern doctrine should be considered the self-reflection of a head to which God has revealed himself implicitly through his grace. This quotation mark described the grace given to Gandhi through his ego consciousness and through his idea procedure that leads to his Christian like beliefs. Although, once more, non being a declared Christian, Gandhi, would be considered an anon. Christian as his beliefs and life manner brought him into the grace of God. Of class, any individual can go an anon. Christian ; it is based on their beliefs and their manner of thought, and their supernatural redemption. If a adult male s ground is that which leads him closer to decorate so as per Rahner, The anon. Christian whether they know it or non, whether they distinguish it from the visible radiation of their natural ground or non are enlightened by the visible radiation of God s grace which God denies no adult male. Bing a Christian is non a requirement to having God s grace. Harmonizing to Rahner, God s grace is unfastened to all work forces. Presented in Rahner s Reader is a transition about researching new lands, Christ s message can still be heard. Although, the dwellers may non understand Christ or his word it does non intend that they are non populating in the grace of God. The Western World, during it s wonderings into unusual lands while transporting Christ s message, ever encounters a universe in which Christ s grace has long been at work even though non called by its ain name. ( Rahner 80 ) Basically what Rahner is stating here is that no affair where we travel we can happen anon. Christians. He believes that God s grace is at work in many lands, topographic points where the dwellers may non even have heard of Jesus Christ or of God Himself. Rahner has a really unfastened head, in the exclusivist position the lone manner to God is through Christ. Rahner is model of the inclusivist position. I agree with Rahner that to be close God does non needfully intend that we must merely accept Jesus Christ as our Lord and savior. There are many people that live a good life, are Christian like in all of their ways but they do non idolize Jesus the same as Christians. Many people in many lands are blessed by God s grace. Many of the people of Israel, although Jewish, still live a life that is graced by God. They pray, the exhibit Christian like atitudes, Judaic people can populate a righteous pious life and through sensible intelligence believe that they are righteous, and imagine God stating them that no affair how good of a life they lived they could non acquire into Eden or be awarded the gift of his grace. This is where Rahner s anon. Christian theory believes that although they are non considered Christians, they still can have God s grace and love. To sum up Karl Rahner s place of the anon. Christian, anyone can be an anon. Christian ; it merely takes the act of life as a Christian and non the expressed declaration of being a Christian. Grace exists by impacting a religious, personal substantialness, by being the divinizing status of the latter, and hence presupposes and incorporates into itself the whole world of this individual as the status of its ain possibility and makes it portion of the factors o tantrums ain concrete being ( Rahner 75 ) In other words grace exists by the actions of people and the actions are a portion that makes up the whole. Therefore, it is the actions of the people that decide if they are worthy of God s grace. The universe is full of anon. Christians. Some we may acknowledge by name such as Gandhi and others are the anon. faces we pass mundane on the street. But we are non able to pick them out except by their actions because even their worshipping or non idolizing wonts can non assist to pick out those worthy of God s grace.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

How to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills free essay sample

Speaking Skills Public speaking skills are valuable both in your personal life and career. However, many people do not want to be a public speaker because they are not confident enough when they give a speech in front of people. These tips below can help you to become a better public speaker. First, pay attention of your stage presence when you are gluing your speech. Good public speakers appear confident, friendly, and enthusiastic.Confidence comes from hosing a topic you like and researching It well. Also, act confident until you feel confident. It can help you to reduce your anxiety. In Dalton, your enthusiasm will naturally follow when you enjoy your topic. Second. Your voice is the most important tool to employ as a public speaker. When you are giving your speech, vary the pitch and volume of your voice. It is the essential things to help the audience to understand your main point. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page If your voice is always sigh, you may hurt your audience ears. But if you voice is always low, your audience will miss your information. Third, use the appropriate body language. You can use it to deliver your message but not too much. If you are using your body language too much, then your audience will get distracted and they are paying attention to your body language more than your main Ideas. In addition, be aware of your facial expressions as well, they should match the message you are delivering.When you tell them a sad story, your mimic must synchronize with your story. Fourth, when it comes to public speaking, delivery is everything. Even if you have a great voice and good body language, your message will get lost if the audience cant easily follow what you say. Avoid sounds like um and ah during your speech, carefully articulate and pronounce your words, pause between ideas, all of this technique can be applied to maintain a good delivery for your speech.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Coursework Helper Essays

Coursework Helper Essays Coursework Helper Essay Coursework Helper Essay Coursework cure refers to the backing offered to academic works undertaken by a critic throughout a unambiguous period of the course being taken. The master-work required of students all things considered follows a program that comprises of a figure up of prerequisites to accomplished the course. No affair what plane or program the commentator in enrolled in, may it be undergraduate, masters, doctoral or honors programs, provision of fixed efficiency is imperative. There may be unfluctuating instances that the undertaking itself may necessitate aid, compelling students to endeavour help from a tally of sources.The slave away submitted alongside the students may restyle, and may take in essays, assignments, reports, useable and written tests, to style some. The output is then assessed around their teachers or professors, from which a area of their grades will be coming from. This may perhaps be the as a result of why most students rely heavily on these assignments to pass their course s with fair marks. This may also be the saneness why a army of students secure relevant help from people who can refrain from them with their erudite requirements. Another reason why students ask for for support to executed their requirements is the in good time constraint required in favour of by each project. Balancing onea^ˆâ„ ¢s time while in college may test quite difficult in behalf of some because of the collegiate consignment of their courses coupled with the other tasks that they suffer with to perform. A lot of students feel that they can optimize their prematurely, energy and abilities if they look for help from mask sources to assistants them with their load. Commonly, the said requirements are captivated separately from their terminal exams. Thus, students who make over to people who can further them can service perquisites too by giving them more unceasingly a once to converge on their end exams; allowing those who longing remedy them destruction the other requirements through despite the course. Some assignments which can extras greatly from source backing include research composition, scribble literary works dissertations, essays, and words reports, and theoretical at liberty to moniker a few. Students, however, must be careful in choosing who to pivot to when they need help fulfilling their hypothetical requirements. People or companies who offer support to students who need succour in their scholastic shape are a certain extent common. This may be partly because of the costly call for in favour of their services, which is also the case why of people and companies who offers dishonourable services thrive. Students be required to then work out immense care in choosing who to reorganize to. Deficiency to determine competent and credible people and companies who can assistant them with their hypothetical requirements can development to more evil than good. Coursework Writing may be turned to if students believe the essential on the side of it. Students essential be entirely aware in choosing who to certitude though. Although it is kind to attract safe friends and school mates to refer exceptional people or companies who can be of help, they must also remember that what works fabulously in the service of whole may not incontrovertibly work as splendidly quest of him/her. The proper credentials of those who bid their alleviate necessity be reviewed to impel firm that peerless arrogate is offered. Free Online Dating at online personals site Free Online Dating Sites for singles, with personals, and Matchmaking.

Coursework Helper Essays

Coursework Helper Essays Coursework Helper Essay Coursework Helper Essay Coursework cure refers to the backing offered to academic works undertaken by a critic throughout a unambiguous period of the course being taken. The master-work required of students all things considered follows a program that comprises of a figure up of prerequisites to accomplished the course. No affair what plane or program the commentator in enrolled in, may it be undergraduate, masters, doctoral or honors programs, provision of fixed efficiency is imperative. There may be unfluctuating instances that the undertaking itself may necessitate aid, compelling students to endeavour help from a tally of sources.The slave away submitted alongside the students may restyle, and may take in essays, assignments, reports, useable and written tests, to style some. The output is then assessed around their teachers or professors, from which a area of their grades will be coming from. This may perhaps be the as a result of why most students rely heavily on these assignments to pass their course s with fair marks. This may also be the saneness why a army of students secure relevant help from people who can refrain from them with their erudite requirements. Another reason why students ask for for support to executed their requirements is the in good time constraint required in favour of by each project. Balancing onea^ˆâ„ ¢s time while in college may test quite difficult in behalf of some because of the collegiate consignment of their courses coupled with the other tasks that they suffer with to perform. A lot of students feel that they can optimize their prematurely, energy and abilities if they look for help from mask sources to assistants them with their load. Commonly, the said requirements are captivated separately from their terminal exams. Thus, students who make over to people who can further them can service perquisites too by giving them more unceasingly a once to converge on their end exams; allowing those who longing remedy them destruction the other requirements through despite the course. Some assignments which can extras greatly from source backing include research composition, scribble literary works dissertations, essays, and words reports, and theoretical at liberty to moniker a few. Students, however, must be careful in choosing who to pivot to when they need help fulfilling their hypothetical requirements. People or companies who offer support to students who need succour in their scholastic shape are a certain extent common. This may be partly because of the costly call for in favour of their services, which is also the case why of people and companies who offers dishonourable services thrive. Students be required to then work out immense care in choosing who to reorganize to. Deficiency to determine competent and credible people and companies who can assistant them with their hypothetical requirements can development to more evil than good. Coursework Writing may be turned to if students believe the essential on the side of it. Students essential be entirely aware in choosing who to certitude though. Although it is kind to attract safe friends and school mates to refer exceptional people or companies who can be of help, they must also remember that what works fabulously in the service of whole may not incontrovertibly work as splendidly quest of him/her. The proper credentials of those who bid their alleviate necessity be reviewed to impel firm that peerless arrogate is offered. Free Online Dating at online personals site Free Online Dating Sites for singles, with personals, and Matchmaking.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Australian Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Australian Law - Essay Example â€Å"Decisions of the High Court are binding on all other courts throughout Australia† (High Court of Australia 2010: The High Court of Australia is the uppermost Court in the judicial system of Australia, the Court of "last resort", in the judicial system of final appeal. It has its origins in the Australian Constitution, Section 71 of which affirms: â€Å"The judicial power of the Commonwealth shall be vested in a Federal Supreme Court, to be called the High Court of Australia, and in such other federal courts as Parliament creates, and in such other courts as it invests with federal jurisdiction† (The High Court of Australia n.d: 1). The High Court shall comprise a Chief Justice and also a lot of other Judges, not below two, as the Parliament has laid down. The fundamental functions of the High Court are to construe and support the Constitution, to construe Federal law and to attend to cases referred from other Courts. Therefore, it is the purpose of this essay to d iscuss why a decision of the High Court on the constitutionality of a Statute will be seen by the Government as a further serious setback to its legislative reform plan than a judgment by a Judge of a State Supreme Court in understanding the meaning of an important provision in the statute, in a way contrary to the Government’s goal.... of this essay to discuss why a decision of the High Court on the constitutionality of a Statute will be seen by the Government as a further serious setback to its legislative reform plan than a judgment by a Judge of a State Supreme Court in understanding the meaning of an important provision in the statute, in a way contrary to the Government’s goal. The Australian Constitution states that the power to create laws is vested in the Parliament. At the same time, the power to understand laws and to judge whether they are relevant in individual cases is vested in the High Court and other Central Courts. Actually, one of the important functions of the High Court is to interpret the Constitution. For instance, the Australian High Court can rule a law to be illegal which is beyond the authority of Parliament to enact and so of no effect. Such a condition would be seen by the Government as an obstruction. The Australian Constitution founds the Federal Government by providing for the Parliament, the Judiciary and the Executive, that is identified as the three pillars of governance or as the policy of â€Å"separation of powers† (Clark 2009: 972). Parliamentary Government means that the Executive Government comes from in the Parliament. Accountable Government means that the Executive Government is accountable to the Parliament. The rule of â€Å"separation of powers† is to prevent an oppressive government. The â€Å"three branches of government† constituted by the Legislature, Judiciary and Executive, work as checks and balances on each other (About Parliament. n.d:1). The Judiciary is â€Å"independent† of the other two arms of Government (1). That independence is one of the main critical safeguards of the democratic system of the country. The Executive is the managerial part of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Understanding business operations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Understanding business operations - Essay Example Supply chain management integrates the key business processes, from end user through original suppliers. Companies and corporations involve themselves in a supply chain by exchanging information regarding market fluctuations and production capabilities. Technology can be used effectively to enhance the performance of the supply chain to ensure value propositions at all points of the supply chain. Ensuring superior value propositions based on customer service leads to competitive advantage. If all relevant information is accessible to any relevant company, every company in the supply chain has the possibility to and can seek to help optimizing the entire supply chain rather than sub optimize based on a local interest. This will lead to better planned overall production and distribution which can cut costs and give a more attractive final product leading to better sales and better overall results for the companies involved. The primary objective of a company’s supply chain management is to fulfil customer demands through the most efficient use of resources, including distribution capacity, inventory and labour. A supply chain seeks to match demand with supply and do so with the minimal inventory. Various aspects of optimizing the supply chain include liaising with suppliers to eliminate bottlenecks; sourcing strategically to strike a balance between lowest material cost and transportation, implementing JIT (Just In Time) techniques to optimize manufacturing flow; maintaining the right mix and location of factories and warehouses to serve customer markets, and using location/allocation, vehicle routing analysis, dynamic programming and traditional logistics optimization to maximize the efficiency of the distribution side. Incorporating SCM successfully leads to a new kind of competition on the global market where competition is no longer of the company versus company form but rather takes on a supply chain versus supply chain form. When a firm sustains

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The literature relating to Effects of Internet Essay Example for Free

The literature relating to Effects of Internet Essay This chapter discusses the literature relating to Effects of Internet use and Internet Addiction (IA). The first section introduces the background of the Internet and identifies the prevalence of IA. The second section discusses the definitions of addiction and their relevance to IA. Background of the Internet The Internet was established in the early 1960s and subsequently became a mainstream communication vehicle (Moschovitis, Polle, Schuyler, Senft, 1999; Schneider, et al., 2006). Since that time, there has been remarkable growth in the Internet‟s functionality, capacity, accessibility and convenience. These improvements have encouraged more people to use it more often, and it has become a powerful application in modern society. As of 2010, 28.7% of the worlds population used Internet services (Internet World Stats, 2010b). The Internet is a massive, computer-linked network system used globally to access and convey information, either by personal or business computer users; it is also used for communication, research, entertainment, education and business transactions (Kraut, et al., 1998; Schneider, et al., 2006). Today, the Internet can link all online computers so that people can use it to communicate throughout the world (Schneider, et al., 2006). Prevalence of IA. The prevalence of IA has been examined in many countries among school student cohorts (see Table 2.1). IA has been reported at a wide range of rates, from a low of 1% in Greece (Tsitsika, et al., 2009) to a high of 36.7% in Italy (Milani, et al., 2009). Most research has reported a prevalence rate 10% or less, for example, 1.6% in South Korea (Kima et al., 2006), 2% in Norway (Johansson Gà ¶testam, 2004), 2.4% in China (Cao Su, 2006), 4% in South Korea (Lee, et al., 2007), 4.6% in Australia (Thomas Martin, 2010), 6% in Poland (Zboralski, et al., 2009), and 7.1% in China (Lang, Jia, Li, Su, 2008). However, a few studies have reported a high prevalence rate of IA among students, for example, 10.7% in South Korea  (Park, Kim, Cho, 2008), 10.8% in China (Lam, et al., 2009), 18.2% in Taiwan (Ko, et al., 2007), and 36.7% in Italy (Milani, et al., 2009). Internet addiction. The first study of IA was conducted by Young (1996), who reported that 79.88% of 496 general Internet users were classified as Internet dependents, using the 24 Diagnostic Questionnaire DQ via email and telephone survey. IA has increasingly been recognized as a potential problem since the introduction of the term by Goldberg in 1996 (Marshall, 1999). While different approaches to different addictions fill the literature, essentially the same ideas about addiction and many of the same behaviours are being described, whether it is substance dependence, pathological gambling, or technology addiction, (Horvath, 2004; McIlwraith, et al., 1991). IA has generally been defined as an inability to control the use of the Internet, causing psychological, social, family, school and work impairment (Davis, 2001; Young Rogers, 1998). However, the terminology or labels for IA are inconsistent in the literature. This study uses the term IA to encompass all the various terms used in the literature. As yet, there are no standard diagnostic criteria for IA agreed upon in the literature. Nevertheless, most researchers acknowledge the existence of IA. As Griffiths (1998) noted, â€Å"Excessive use of the Internet may not be problematic in most cases but the limited case study evidence suggests that for some individuals, excessive Internet use is a real addiction and of genuine concern† (p. 73). Researchers have also tried to develop an accurate assessment tool in order to diagnose IA. For example, a well known assessment tool to classify IA was introduced by Young (1996) in the form of an eight-item Diagnostic Questionnaire (DQ) which was based on pathological gambling criteria. The DQ utilizes a set of yes/no questions regarding preoccupation with the Internet, the amount of time spent on the Internet, and the negative impacts of the Internet use. Since the introduction of Young’s instrument (Young, 1996), several other assessment tools have been developed.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Symptoms And Treatments In Cystic Fibrosis

Symptoms And Treatments In Cystic Fibrosis Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetically inherited diseases which can cause premature death in western populations, with 1 in 2000-3000 new born babies being found to be affected by Cystic fibrosis in Europe [1]. The disease is caused by defective chloride ion channels along the epithelial membrane of the lungs, pancreas and other organs; although there are several hypotheses as to how this dysfunction specifically gives rise to the typical symptoms. The complications associated with the disease are varied, the most significant being the build up of abnormally thick excess mucus which can cause impaired function of the lungs and other major organs. Fortunately research into new treatments has significantly improved the life expectancy of people suffering from this disease. This essay discusses the causes Introduction The name cystic fibrosis refers to the generation of cysts in the pancreas and the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in the lungs. The internal organs which suffer the most damage as a result of this disease are the lungs and the pancreas; although a variety of other organs are also affected. The first clinical recognition of cystic fibrosis didnt occur until the 1930s when its symptoms were observed and characterised by Dr. Dorothy Anderson. The recessive nature of the disease was confirmed in the mid-forties after an investigation involving over one hundred families; although the defective gene that causes the disease wasnt isolated for another forty years when it was discovered in 1989 by reverse genetics. After the breakthrough in the forties general understanding of the disease increased steadily over the next couple of decades with a major clinical advancements in diagnostics occurring in the fifties with the development of the sweat test. As cystic fibrosis is the result of an autosomal recessive disorder, the sufferer will have to of inherited two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) in order to be affected by the disease. The mutation takes place in a single gene on chromosome 7. This faulty gene leads to the development of a defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. In healthy people the CFTR proteins form ion channels to transport chlorine ions across the epithelial membrane of the lungs, pancreas, sweat glands and other organs. It is also thought to regulate the activity of other chlorine-selective channels and some cation-selective (sodium ion) channels. Ions can then pass through these channels thereby maintaining the water potential of the cells. When the fine balance of ion concentration is affected less water is able to pass across the epithelial membrane by osmosis causing excess and highly viscous mucus to build up in the affected organs, resulting in severe long-term respiratory and digestive problems. The human lungs are adapted for use in aerobic respiration by providing a thin, moist surface for gas exchange to take place between the pulmonary arteries and the external environment. For gas exchange to be effective the respiratory surface must comply with Ficks law which requires that the surface area is large, moist and thin to enhance permeability. The resulting fibrosis caused by the disease greatly affects the permeability of the lungs and hence reduces their capacity for gas exchange. Molecular mechanisms There are over 1500 types of mutation which can cause a defect in the CFTR protein, the most common of which is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  F508) which Is the cause of approximately two-thirds of CF cases. The mutations are categorised into six classes determined by their impact on the resulting functionality of the CFTR channels, ranging from reduced to complete non-function. Class I, II and III mutations all result in the absence or substantial reduction of functional CFTR. Class I mutations cause a complete lack of protein production due to premature stop codons arising in the genetic code whereas class II mutations produce a protein that doesnt fold properly and so is consequently degraded by the cell. In a class III mutation the lack of effective binding with ATP molecules leads to the defective regulation of CFTR and so again is classified as being non-functional. Classes IV and V still permit the development of functional CFTR albeit with reduced capacity for chloride ion transport or with reduced production of functional CFTR in general due to promoter mutations that decrease transcription [2]. Class VI mutations also produce functional CFTR although its degradation is greatly accelerated. The F508 deletion results in a class II mutation. There are four main hypotheses as to how this defective gene causes disease although it is not known whether the disease is caused by one or a combination these hypotheses. Two of these, the low volume and high salt hypotheses, provide a detailed description of the complications that arise as a result of faulty CFTR by taking into account the composition of airway surface liquid (ASL). Low volume hypothesis In the case of the low volume hypothesis it was postulated that there is little to no difference in the salt concentration of ASL between healthy people and those suffering from cystic fibrosis. This hypothesis suggests that the symptoms of cystic fibrosis are caused by a dysfunction of the CFTR gene resulting in damaged or ineffective sodium ion channels. The damage caused is ergogenic and reduces the inhibition of the ion channels leading to the excessive movement of sodium ions from the ASL into the airways. The increased concentration of positively charged sodium ions in the airways then drives the absorption of chlorine ions and water, reducing the volume of ASL and dehydrating mucus. The dehydrated mucus becomes highly viscous and the cilia present on epithelial cells which are used to aid the clearance of mucus and to increase lung surface area become compressed by the mucosal build up. This compression of cilia inhibits the clearance of mucus which then continues to build up, further reducing the lung surface area. The excess mucus can also form hypoxic niches that can harbour colonies of pseudomonas aeruginosa. Build up of mucus physically reduces the lung surface area affecting the efficiency of gas exchange. The mucus build up also increases the compression of cilia on epithelial cells which inhibits clearance by cilia and coughing. High salt hypothesis The high salt hypothesis assumes that the airway surface liquid of healthy individuals has a relatively low salt concentration when compared to the ASL of cystic fibrosis sufferers. It suggests that the symptoms of the disease are caused by the disruption or complete absence of CFTR function which causes excess sodium and chloride ions to be retained in the ASL. This increased retention of chloride ions leads to the ASL having an abnormally negatively charged composition. This abnormality impairs the activity of the bodys natural bactericidal enzymes such as lysozyme which rely on electrostatic interactions to attach to the bacterial cell walls; thus allowing bacterial infection to persist in the hypoxic niches formed within the lungs. Abnormally high inflammation It has been speculated that the defective CFTR itself may be the cause of excessive inflammation in the airways. However there is limited evidence to suggest that the defective CFTR is a cause of excessive inflammation in itself but rather that it interferes with the regulation of autophagy. Autophagy is the process by which defective proteins are degraded in order to maintain the balance between the recycling and synthesis of cellular products, for example the degradation of defective CFTR by the cells own lysosomes. Research indicates that large amounts of defective CFTR inhibits autophagy, leading to an accumulation of aggresomes which can cause inflammation in the lungs [3]. The resulting inflammation is what gives rise to the characteristic scarring of lung tissue. CFTR bind with P. Aeruginosa Chronic bacterial infection is common amongst all cystic fibrosis sufferers, specifically the bacterial species pseudomonas aeruginosa which binds readily to the CFTR protein. In healthy people the body initiates an immune response in order to fight off the infection. In cystic fibrosis suffers there is enhanced binding between p. Aeruginosa and the CFTR protein, the bacterium is also able to bind without initiating an immune response. The compromised immune response combined with reduced ability to clear mucus due to compressed cilia further increases the risk of severe infection. Symptoms Visible characteristics typical amongst suffers include a slightly meagre appearance due to inefficient absorption of nutrients and the famously salty sweat used to confirm CF diagnosis. Low levels of oxygen in the tissues due to impaired gas exchange between the lungs and the bloodstream can cause clubbing of the fingers and toes Salty sweat The salty sweat associated with the disease like so many of its symptoms is again caused by faulty CFTR present on the sweat ducts. As sodium ions leave the sweat ducts through ion channels chloride ions follow through them through the CFTR protein channels. However, in cystic fibrosis patients dysfunctional CFTR channels prevent the outward flow of chloride ions from the sweat ducts. The resulting high chloride ion concentration in sweat ducts creates an electrochemical gradient which pulls more positively charged sodium ions into the ducts where the ions combine to form salt (NaCl). The salt is then secreted through pores in the skin resulting in very salty sweat as very little NaCl is reabsorbed. Salt sweat concentration of greater than 60mEq/L is generally considered significant enough to make a diagnosis, although further test may be required. Although poor growth can pose its own health risks the most severe symptoms are caused by the diseases capacity to cause damage to the internal organs. Endocrine CF is commonly referred to as an exocrine disorder meaning the resulting dysfunction affects glands which secrete their products through a duct to the surface of the body or of an organ, sweat glands and pancreatic ducts being an example of this. However some complications can arise in the bodys endocrine glands, glands which secrete their product directly into the bloodstream. Disorders of the endocrine glands tend to affect the secretion of hormones. Damage to the islets of langerhans within the pancreas can impair the secretion of insulin which can eventually lead to CF related diabetes. Pulmonary Lungs are the predominant source of infection, vulnerable to different species of bacteria although P. Aeruginosa becomes predominant; eventually these bacterial colonies form a biofilm which is difficult to remove with antibiotic treatments. The thickening of mucus creates environmental niches suitable for harbouring bacteria. High levels of infection result in an inflammatory response which often leads to extensive tissue damage and scarring regarded as the characteristic fibrosis of the lungs. The resulting fibrosis damages the epithelium of the lungs, making gas-exchange inefficient. Thick mucus also physically reduces the surface area Implications for other organs The lungs arent the only organs that suffer damage as a result of cystic fibrosis Diverse range of other organs affected, majority of these form a part of the alimentary system Lacking digestive enzymes in the intestines Absence of these digestive enzymes impair patients ability to breakdown and therefore digest their food. This generally results in poor growth but in extreme cases can cause severe malnutrition. Alimentary system all digestive systems The formation of cysts blocks ducts in the liver and pancreas preventing the secretion of essential digestive enzymes and hormones. Blocked ducts prevent secretion of enzymes/hormones? Mainly the pancreas which affects absorption of nutrients and can lead to poor growth in suffers Blockage of ducts in the liver New born babies can suffer from meconium ileus, an inability to pass their first faeces (meconium). The resulting ileus can cause blockages in the intestines that can cause rectal prolapse due to the strain involved in producing a bowel movement. Common associations between cases of meconium ileus and CF led to it being used as a postnatal diagnostic technique. Excess viscous mucus isnt only a problem in the lungs. Organs of the alimentary system can also be affected. Thick mucus can block pancreatic ducts preventing the secretion of vital digestive enzymes into the duodenum. The body is then unable to effectively extract nutrients from the ingested foods. Malabsorption is a common symptom of CF generally resulting in poor growth but in extreme cases can cause severe malnutrition. Fertility problems Fertility problems related to CF usually occur before birth whilst the foetus is still developing. Blocking of or complete absence of the connective tube (vas deferens) between the testes and ejaculatory ducts in males means that although they are not sterile they are unable to conceive children by traditional intercourse. In women thick mucus can cause blockages in the cervix or their ovulation cycle may be disrupted malnutrition as a result of CF related enzyme deficiencies. More than 95% of males with CF are infertile. Percentage of CF infertile source world health organisation Treatments Unfortunately there is currently no cure for CF however there are several treatments that can alleviate some of the symptoms associated with the disease, such as the use of hypertonic saline and enzyme replacement. Treatments such as gene therapy are more geared towards creating a permanent cure for CF, although at this moment in time the technology has not been perfected. Pharmacological treatments Fortunately the CFTRs are not the only chloride ion channels available on lung surface epithelium. Certain drugs can stimulate these other channels. Rcjournal. Stimulate the release of calcium or inhibit sodium channels to offset negative effects of whatever hypothesis. Hypertonic saline Major complications of CF stem from the imbalance in ion concentrations caused by the faulty CFTR gene. From this knowledge a line of treatments were developed in order to restore the ionic imbalance and hence improve the bodys ability to clear thick mucus from the lungs. The answer would need to be a sterile solution; high in salts that could be inhaled to replace the ions which werent being transported across the CFTR channels. The solution, hyper tonic saline, is a cheap and effective treatment for reducing the viscosity of mucus in the lungs. After it is inhaled the solution works by creating an osmotic gradient, drawing water into the airways, rehydrating the mucus causing blockages and reducing its viscosity hence making it easier to cleared and coughed up. Enzyme replacement Enzymes can be *injected* to restore the deficiency created by blockages of pancreatic ducts. Patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy can expect to see improvements in growth, weight gain and general health as many illnesses arise from poor absorption of nutrients. Nutritional supplements can also be taken to replace those not being absorbed normally. Important short term treatments are giving nutritional supplements to sufferers to relieve malnourishment and promote healthy growth Nutritional plans generally involve high calorie diets rich in vitamins such as vitamin D to develop strong bones and prevent osteoporosis. Gene therapy Soon after the discovery of the defective gene in 1989 efforts were invested in finding a therapy that could target the disease at its genetic roots. Discovery of an effective method of gene therapy would open a virtual goldmine in treating not only cystic fibrosis but also other genetic diseases. One of the current gene therapy techniques for the treatment of CF involves the use of adenoviruses carrying vectors containing corrected copies of the CFTR gene. The adenoviruses carry double stranded DNA which is deposited in the nucleus of the host cell and then transcribed in the same way as the host cells own DNA. However, as this is an example of somatic gene therapy, the DNA of the adenovirus wont integrate with the host genome and the gene will not continue to be expressed after cellular division. This means the effects are not permanent and patients will require subsequent treatments to maintain the effect. There are of course risks associated with the use of viruses to incorporate functional DNA. Even though the viruses being used are non-pathogenic the presence of a foreign body can still initiate an immune response; the resulting inflammation can be dangerous for patients who are already at high risk of excessive inflammation due to immunocomprimisation. An alternative to adenoviruses are adeno-associated viruses (AAV). AAV vectors are non-pathogenic and have been shown to have a lower prevalence to neutralising antibodies when com pared to adenoviruses in vitro [4]. However they do have a relatively small genome of ~4.8 kilobases, with most gene treatments requiring the complete replacement of the viral genome. As a result of this, research is being targeted towards more effective means of gene therapy with tests being carried out with AAV and lipid-vectors. There is a trade off between the effectiveness of the method used to induce the vector. Viral vectors are more effective at integrating the vector into the host DNA compared to lipid vectors, but there is the increased risk of an immune response. Lung transplant In the most severe cases where patients are suffering from chronic infection lung transplants can be carried out where appropriate. In these cases both lungs need to be transplanted in order to prevent the new lung from being contaminated by existing bacterial populations currently present in the patient. Antibiotics Antibiotics tend to be used prophylacticaly as a pre-emptive measure for preventing infection. One common type of drugs used in treatments are macrolide antibiotics can suppress obstructive secretions in airways The macrolide antibiotics work by binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Conclusion The overall outlook for patients with CF has improved dramatically over the past eighty years since the first clinical recognition in the 1930s. A greater understanding of genetics has enhanced both the fields of clinical diagnostics and treatments. The future of treatments points towards gene therapy, we currently have the technology to do this but further research is needed to overcome the major obstacles such as more efficient transfer and getting the gene expression to last longer. [*] Figure 1. Sweat chloride concentrations related to cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Revised and reprinted by permission from Davis PB. Cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Rev 2001;22:257-264.Figure 1

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Business Task 1 on individual report Essay

Despite its future economic prospects, the United Arab Emirates continues to suffer from corporate governance issues. The development of corporate governance in the region has largely been influenced by religion (Gellis et al., 2002). The rules governing the practice of corporate governance have been significantly influenced by Islamic Sharia. This reflects the cultural and religious characteristic of the region (Islam and Hussain, 2003). Islamic Sharia specifies a number of core values such as trust, integrity, honesty and justice which are similar to the core values of corporate governance codes in the West. However, a survey of corporate governance in a number of Gulf countries such as United Arab Emirates suggests that the region continues to suffer from corporate governance weaknesses. 2.0 Reasons for the structure including use of suitable evidence and data                  The structure of the above sectors and reasons for the structure and effects on the performance of firms has been vital subject of debate in the finance literature. Empirical evidence suggests that privately held firms tend to be more efficient and more profitable than publicly held firms. This shows that ownership structure matters. The question now is how does it affect firm performance and why this kind of structure? This question is significant since it is based on a research agenda that has been strongly promoted by La Porta et al. (1998; 1999; 2000). According to these studies, failure of the legislative framework to provide sufficient protection for external investors, entrepreneurs and founding investors of a company tend will maintain large positions in their firms thus resulting in a concentrated ownership structure. This finding is interesting because it implies that ownership structure can affect the performance of the firm in one way or the other. It is indisputable; the lack of regulations in corporate governance gives managers who intend to mishandle the flow of cash for their own personal interest a low control level. The empirical results from the past studies of impacts of ownership structure on performance of corporate have been inconclusive and mixed up (Turki, 2012). In response to corporate governance issues and their impact on corporate performance, Shleifer and Vishny (1997); and Jensen (2000) have suggested the need for improved corporate governance structures so as to enhance transparency, accountability and responsibility. Corporate governance reform and the introduction of innovative methods to limit abuse of power by top management have been justified by recent large scale accounting and corporate failures such as Enron, HealthSouth, Tyco International, Adelphia, Global Crossing, WorldCom, Cendant and the recent global financial crisis. According to Monks and Minow (1996) numerous corporate failures suggest that existing corporate governance structures are not working effectively. Corporate failures and accounting scandals initially appear to a U.S phenomenon, resulting from excessive greed by investors, overheated equity markets, and a winner-take-all mind-set of the U.S society. However, the last decade has shown that irregularities in accounting, managerial greed, abuse of power, are global phenomenon that cannot be limited to the U.S. Many non-U.S firms such as Parallax, Adecco, TV Azteca, Hollinger, Royal Dutch Shell, Vivendi, China Aviation, Barings Bank, etc. have witnessed failures in corporate governance and other forms of corporate mishaps. In addition to corporate governance failures, global standards have declined significantly and unethical and questionable practices have become widely accepted. The net impact has been a reduction in the amount of faith that investors and shareholders have in the efficiency of capital markets. There is no universally accepted corporate governance model that the interest of shareholders and investors are adequately protected as well as ensuring that enough shareholder wealth is being created (Donaldson and Davis, 2001; Huse, 1995; Frentrop, 2003). Much of the debate on corporate governance has focused on understanding whether the Board of Directors has enough power to ensure that top management is making the right decision. The traditional corporate governance framework often ignores the unique effect that the owners of the firm can have on the board and thus the firm’s top management. The traditional framework therefore ignores that fact that the owners of the firm can influence the board and thus top management to act of make particular decisions. Corporate governance studies are therefore yet to identify and deal with the complexities that are inherent in corporate governance processes (Jensen, 2000; Shleifer, 2001; Frentrop, 2003; Donaldson and Davis, 2001; Huse, 1995). Investment choices and owner preferences are affected among other things by the extent their degree of risk aversion. Owners who have economic relations with the firm will be interested in protecting their interests even if it is reasonably evident that such protection will result in poor performance. According to Thomsen and Pedersen (1997) banks that play a dual role as owners and lenders would discourage high risk projects with great profit potential because such projects may hinder the firm from meeting its financial obligations if the project fails to realize its expected cash flows. The government also plays a dual role in that it serves as both an owner and a regulator. Therefore owners who play a dual role in the firm often face a trade-off between promoting the creation of shareholder value and meeting their other specific objectives (Hill and Jones, 1992). Existing corporate governance frameworks have often ignored these issues in UAE. Rather, much of the emphasis has been on the effectiveness of the board in ensuring that top management is working towards meeting the goals of shareholders. Present corporate governance frameworks lack the ability to monitor owners and their influence on top management. The framework lacks the ability to align the role played by firm owners, board of directors and managers’ interests and actions with the creation of shareholder value and welfare motivation of stakeholders. Discussion of the possible future structure of the industry                The United Arabs Emirates, and mainly Abu Dhabi, is enduring to increase its economy by reducing the total proportion impact of hydrocarbons to Gross Domestic Product. This is currently being done by growing investment in sector areas like: services in telecommunication, education, media, healthcare, tourism, aviation, metals, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, transportation and trade. Significant investments have been made by United Arab Emirates to establish itself as a regional trade hub. United Arab Emirates is also member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). In addition, there are ongoing negotiations to establish free trade agreements with other regions and countries such as the EU. These factors will contribute positively to the region’s integration into the global economy. United Arab Emirates is currently working towards diversifying their economies from the oil sector into other sectors. This diversification is expected not only to increase trade among member countries but also to increase the region’s trade with other countries and regions (Sturm et al., 2008). How the structure affects strategy decisions                  Ownership structure has an impact on firm performance in United Arab Emirates energy production owned sector. This region has witnessed significant economic growth over the last few decades. The region is also facing turbulent times with respect to corporate governance practices, resulting in poor firm performance. Corporate governance issues are not limited to the United Arabs Emirates as part of GCC Countries. From a global point of view, corporate governance has witnessed significant transformations over the last decade (Gomez and Korine, 2005). As a result, there has been an interest in the research attention accorded to corporate governance. The credibility of current corporate governance structures has come under scrutiny owing to recent corporate failures and low corporate performance across the world. The risk aversion of the firm can be directly affected by the ownership structure in place. Agency problems occur as a result of divergence in interests between principals (owners) and agents (managers) (Leech and Leahy, 1991). The board of directors is thereby regarded as an intermediary between managers and owners. The board of directors plays four important roles in the firm. These include monitoring, stewardship, monitoring and reporting. The board of directors monitors and controls the discretion of top management. The board of directors influences managerial discretion in two ways: internal influences which are imposed by the board and external influences which relate to the role played by the market in monitoring and sanctioning managers (Jensen and Meckling, 1976; 2000). B: Contribution of the sector to the economy of your chosen country Analysis of contribution of sector                United Arab Emirates remain major global economic player because it has the highest oil reserves. UAE together with the other Gulf Cooperation Council accounts for over 40% of global oil reserves and remains important in supplying the global economy with oil in future. As a result, investment spending on oil exploration and development of new oil fields is on the rise (Sturm et al., 2008). Global oil demand is currently on the rise. This growth is driven mainly by emerging market economies, as well as the oil producing UAE as part of GCC countries. In addition, Europe and the U.S are witnessing depletions in their oil reserves. This means that these regions will become increasingly dependent on the Gulf region which includes UAE for the supply of oil (Sturm et al., 2008). The importance of the United Arabs Emirates as a global economic player is therefore expected to increase dramatically in the near future Use of appropriate data and other evidence                  By the year 2011, the GDP of United Arab Emirates totaled to 360.2 billion dollars. Subsequently in 2001, yearly growth of GNP varied from about 7.4% to 30.7%. As part of the chief crude oil suppliers, the United Arab Emirates was at first cut off from the universal recession by high prices on oil that rose to a record 147 US dollars per barrel in the month of July in 2008. Nevertheless, the nation was ultimately influenced by the excavating worldwide recession which resulted to a decline in oil demand, reducing the oil prices to a reduced amount not exceeding a third of the peak of July 2008. In the last 2008 months, the trembles rumbling through global economies were lastly experienced in this section. Oil (million barrels)       Proved reserves, 2013 Total oil supply (thousand bbl/d), 2012 Total petroleum consumption, 2012 Reserves-to-production ratio 97,800 3,213 618 95 Natural Gas (billion cubic feet) Proved reserves, 2013 Dry natural gas production, 2012 Dry natural gas consumption, 2012 Reserves-to-production ratio 215,025 1,854 2,235 116 UAE summary energy statistics C: Critical appraisal of sustainability targets on business plan of your chosen organisation Oil firms in United Arab Emirates is still quite immature. Most businesses are controlled by a few shareholders and family ownership is prevalent. Most large and small businesses are family businesses (Saidi, 2004). The state is also significantly involved in the management of companies (Union of Arab Banks, 2003). This is contrary to the status quo in Western democracies where firms are owned by a diverse group of shareholders which makes ownership to be completely separated from control. The ownership structure in United Arab Emirates suggests that stewardship and monitoring aspects of non-executive directors (NEDs) is absent in firms based in United Arab Emirates. Ownership concentration has remained high in the region because of practices such as rights issues which enable existing wealthy shareholders, and influential families to subscribe to new shares in Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) (Musa, 2002). According to a study of the corporate governance practices of five countries by the Union of Arab Banks (2003), ownership of corporations is concentrated in the hands of families. In addition, corporate boards are dominated by controlling shareholders, their relatives and friends (Union of Arab Banks, 2003). There is a no clear separation between control and ownership. Decision making is dominated by shareholders. The number of independent directors in the board is very small and the functions of the CEO and Chairman are carried out by the same person. The high concentration in firm ownership therefore undermines the principles of good corporate governance that are prevalent in western settings (Yasin and Shehab, 2004). This evidence is consistent with findings by the World Bank (2003) in an investigation of corporate governance practices in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region which also includes the Gulf region. 1.0 Objective of empirical evidence                  The empirical evidence on the impact of ownership structure on firm performance is mixed. Different studies have made use of different samples to arrive at different, contradictory and sometimes difficult to compare conclusions. The literature suggests that there are two main ownership structures in firm including dispersed ownership and concentrated ownership. With respect to concentrated ownership, most of the empirical evidence suggests that concentrated ownership negatively affects performance (e.g., Johnson et al., 2000; Gugler and Weigand, 2003; Grosfeld, 2006; Holmstrom and Tirole, 1993). Different studies have also focused on how specifically concentrated ownership structures affect firm performance. For example, with respect to government ownership, Jefferson (1998), Stiglitz (1996), and Sun et al. (2002) provide theoretical arguments that government ownership is likely to positively affect firm performance because government ownership can facili tate the resolution of issues regarding the ambiguous property rights. However, Xu and Wang (1999) and Sun and Tong (2003) provide empirical evidence that government ownership has a negative impact on firm performance. On the contrary, Sun et al. (2002) provide empirical evidence that government ownership has a positive impact on firm performance. It has also been argued that the relationship between government ownership and firm performance is non-linear. Another commonly investigated ownership type and its impact on firm performance is family ownership. Anderson and Reeb (2003), Villanonga and Amit (2006), Maury (2006), Barontini and Caprio (2006), and Pindado et al. (2008) suggest that there is a positive link between family ownership and firm performance. Despite the positive impact some studies argue that the impact of family ownership is negative. The impact of foreign ownership has also been investigated. Most of the evidence suggests that foreign ownership has a positive impact on firm performance (e.g., Arnold and Javorcik, 2005; Petkova, 2008; Girma, 2005; Girma and Georg, 2006; Girma et al., 2007; Chari et al., 2011; Mattes, 2008).With respect to managerial ownership, it has been argued that the relationship is likely to be positive (Jensen and Meckling, 1976; Chen et al., 2005; Drobetz et al., 2005). Despite this suggestion Demsetz and Lehn (1985) observe a negative relationship between dispersed ownership and firm performance. Institutional ownership has also been found to have a positive impact on firm performance (e.g. McConnell and Servaes, 1990; Han and Suk, 1998; Tsai and Gu, 2007). Furthermore, some studies suggest that there is no link between insider ownership and performance . Very limited studies have been conducted on the impact of ownership structure on firm performance in GCC countries like UAE. For example, Arouri et al. (2013) provide evidence that bank performance is affected by family ownership, foreign ownership and institutional ownership and that there is no significant impact of government ownership on bank performance. Zeitun and Al-Kawari (2012) observe a significant positive impact of government ownership on firm performance in the Gulf region. The pervasive endogeneity of ownership has been cited as a potential reason why it is difficult to disentangle the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance. In addition, the relation may be a function of the type of firm as well as the period of observation in the life of the firm. This study is motivated by the mixed results obtained in previous studies and the limited number of studies that have focused on UAE as part of GCC countries. The objective of the study is to explore in more details the factors that motivate particular types of ownership structure and the potential impact of ownership structure and firm performance in the Gulf region 2.0 Empirical Evidence                The empirical evidence will focus on how different ownership structures affect firm performance. Firms are often characterized by concentrated and dispersed ownership. Concentrated ownership is expected to have a positive impact on firm performance owning to the increased monitoring that it provides (Grosfeld, 2006). Dispersed ownership has been found to be less frequent than expected. Empirical evidence suggests that most firms are characterized by various forms of ownership concentration (La Porta et al., 1999). Given this high level of ownership concentration, there has been an increasing concern over the protection of the rights of non-controlling shareholders (Johnson et al., 2000; Gugler and Weigand, 2003). Empirical evidence shows that ownership concentration at best results in poor performance. Concentrated ownership is costly and has the potential of promoting the exploitation of non-controlling shareholders by controlling shareholders (Grosfeld, 2006). Holmstrom and Tirole (1993) argue that concentrated ownership can contribute to poor liquidity, which can in turn negatively affect performance. In addition, high ownership concentration limits the ability of the firm to diversify. There are various forms of concentrated ownership such as government ownership, family ownership, managerial ownership, institutional ownership and foreign ownership. In the next section, the literature review will focus on how these separate ownership structures affect firm performance. 2.1.1 Government Ownership                  The impact of government ownership on firm performance has attracted the attention of many researchers because the government accounts for the largest proportion of shares of listed companies in some countries and also because government ownership can be used as an instrument of intervention by the government (Kang and Kim, 2012). Shleifer and Vishny (1997) suggest that government ownership can contribute to poor firm performance because Government Owned enterprises often face political pressure for excessive employment. In addition, it is often difficult to monitor managers of government owned enterprises and there is often a lack of interest in carrying out business process reengineering (Shleifer and Vishny, 1996; Kang and Kim, 2012). Contrary to Shleifer and Vishny (1997) some economists have argued that government ownership can improve firm performance in less developed and emerging economies in particular. This is because government ownership can fa cilitate the resolution of issues with respect to ambiguous property rights. The empirical evidence on the impact of state ownership on firm performance is mixed. For example, Xu and Wang (1999) provide evidence of a negative relationship between state ownership and firm performance based on data for Chinese listed firms over the period 1993-1995. The study, however, fails to find any link between the market-to-book ratio and state ownership (Xu and Wang, 1999). Sun and Tong (2003) employ ownership data from 1994 to 2000 and compares legal person ownership with government ownership. The study provides evidence that government ownership negatively affects firm performance while legal person ownership positively affects firm performance. This conclusion is based on the market-to-book ratio as the measure of firm performance. However, using return on sales or gross earnings as the measure of firm performance, the study provides evidence that government ownership has no effect on firm performance. Sun et al. (2002) provide contrary evidence from above. Using data over the period 1994-1997, Sun et al. (2002) provide evidence that both legal person ownership and government ownership had a positive effect on firm performance. They explain their results by suggesting that legal person ownership is another form of government ownership. The above studies treat the relationship between government ownership and firm performance as linear. However it has been argued that the relationship is not linear. Huang and Xiao (2012) provide evidence that government ownership has a negative net effect on performance in transition economies. La Porta et al. (2002) provide evidence across 92 countries that government ownership of banks contributes negatively to bank performance. The evidence is consistent with Dinc (2005) and Brown and Dinc (2005) who investigate government ownership banks in the U.S. 2.1.2 Family Ownership               Family ownership is very common in oil firms in UAE. There is a difference between family ownership and other types of shareholders in that family owners tend to be more interested in the long-term survival of the firm than other types of shareholders(Arosa et al., 2010).. Furthermore, family owners tend to be more concerned about the firm’s reputation of the firm than other shareholders (Arosa et al., 2010). This is because damage to the firm’s reputation can also result in damage the family’s reputation. Many studies have investigated the relationship between family ownership and firm performance. They provide evidence of a positive relationship between family ownership and firm performance (e.g. Anderson and Reeb, 2003; Villalonga and Amit, 2006; Maury, 2006; Barontini and Caprio, 2006; Pindado et al., 2008). The positive relationship between family ownership and firm performance can be attributed to a number of factors. For example, Arosa et al. (2010) suggests that family firms’ long-term goals indicate that this category of firms desire investing over long horizons than other shareholders. In addition, because there is a significant relationship between the wealth of the family and the value of the family firm, family owners tend to have greater incentives to monitor managers (agents) than other shareholders (Anderson and Reeb, 2003). Furthermore, family owners would be more interested in offering incentives to managers that will make them loyal to the firm. In addition, there is a substantial long-term presence of families in family firms with strong intentions to preserve the name of the family. These family members are therefore more likely to forego short-term financial rewards so as to enable future generations take over the business and protect the family’s reputation (Wang, 2006). In addition, family ownership has positive economic consequences on the business. There are strong control structures that can motivate family members to communicate effectively with other shareholders and creditors using higher quality financial reporting with the resulting effect being a reduction in the cost of financing the business . Furthermore, families are interested in the long-term survival of the firm and family, which reduces the opportunistic behavior of family members with regard to the distribution of earnings and allocation of management, positions. Despite the positive impact of family ownership on firm performance, it has been argued that family ownership promotes high ownership concentration, which in turn creates corporate governance problems. In addition, high ownership concentration results in other types of costs (Arosa et al., 2010). As earlier mentioned, La Porta et al. (1999) and Vollalonga and Amit (2006) argue that controlling shareholders are likely to undertake activities that will give them gain unfair advantage over non-controlling shareholders. For example, family firms may be unwilling to pay dividends . Another reason why family ownership can have a negative impact on firm performance is that controlling family shareholders can easily favour their own interests at the expense of non-controlling shareholders by running the company as a family employment service. Under such circumstances, management positions will be limited to family members and extraordinary dividends will be paid to family shareholders (Demsetz, 1983; Fama and Jensen, 1983; Shleifer and Vishny, 1997). Agency costs may arise because of dividend payments and management entrenchment (DeAngelo and DeAngelo, 2000; Francis et al., 2005). Families may also have their own interests and concerns that may not be in line with the concerns and interests of other investor groups (Shleifer and Vishny, 1997). Schulze et al. (2001) provide a discussion, which suggests that the impact of family ownership on firm performance can be a function of the generation. For example, noting that agency costs often arise as a result of the separation of ownership from control, they argue that first generation family firms tend to have limited agency problems because the management and supervision decisions are made by the same individual. As such agency costs are reduced because the separation of ownership and control has been completely eliminated. Given that there is no separation of ownership and control in the first generation family firm, the firm relationship between family ownership and performance is likely to be positive (Miller and Le-Breton-Miller, 2006). As the firm enters second and third generations, the family property becomes shared by an increasingly large number of family members with diverse interests. The moment conflict of interests sets in the relationship between family ownership and performance turns negative in accordance to (Chrisman et al., 2005; Sharma et al., 2007). Furthermore, agency problems arise from family relations because family members with control over the firm’s resources are more likely to be generous to their children and other relatives (Schulze et al., 2001). To summarize, the relationship between family ownership and firm performance may be non-linear. This means that the relationship is likely to be positive and negative at the same time. To support this contention, a number of studies have observed a non-linear relationship between family ownership and firm performance (e.g. Anderson and Reeb, 2003; Maury, 2006). This means that when ownership is less concentrated, family ownership is likely to have a positive impact on firm performance. As the family ownership concentration increases, minority shareholders tend to be exploited by family owners and thus the impact of family ownership on firm performance tends negative. Small countries have a relatively weak diamond of competitive advantages (Vlahinić-Dizdarević; 2006). D. Analysis 1.0 Potter’s Diamond Model The competitive forces advantages or analysis ought to be fixed on the main competition factors and its impact analysis on the business (Porter 1998, p.142). The state, and home wealth cannot be inherited -3554730607695Faktorski uvjeti 00Faktorski uvjeti -27546301293495Vezane i podrÃ… ¾avajuće industrije 00Vezane i podrÃ… ¾avajuće industrije -332041536195Ã…  ansa 00Ã…  ansa – it ought to be produced (Porter 1998, p.155). This wealth is influenced by the ability of industry to continually upgrade and innovate itself, and this is achievable exclusively by increase means in production – in all parts of fiscal action. The model of Porter concerns aspect which circuitously or openly affects advantage of competition. The aspect structure a place where given manufacturing sector like in this case, oil sector, state or region a learn and act on the way of competing in that environment. (Porter; 1998, p. 165). Left0                   Each diamond (oil) and the field of diamond (oil) as the whole structure consists of main influences that makes the oil sector competition to be successive. These influences entail: every ability and resource vital for competitive advantage of the sector; data forming the opportunity and providing the response to how accessible abilities and resources ought to be ruled; each interest group aim; and the is most crucial, oil sector pressure to innovating and investing. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths The oil sector has many years producing oil and so is well established. Comparatively lots of sub-sectors for industrialist stability and support. Weaknesses Comparatively out of date scientific foundation. Inadequate well educated professionals and residents in comparison to the new industry needs. Lesser costs of work cost in oil sector due to low salary from regular salaries in UAE. Opportunities The likelihood for resources application of EU agreement funds, as is the state resources Reasonably good quality of 11 % graduate students share that are likely to be absorbed into this oil sector. 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