Saturday, August 31, 2019

Financial Analysis Apple Inc.

————————————————- To: ————————————————- ————————————————- By: ————————————————- ————————————————- FINANCIAL REVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Company Background 3 2. Stock Price Analysis 6 3. Risk Return Analysis 9 5. References11 PART I A. Company Background Apple Inc. long with its wholly-owned subsidiaries designs and manufactures and markets mobile communication, media devices, personal computers and portable digital music players along with a variety of related software’s, services, peripherals and networking solutions. The Company offers a range of mobile communication and media devices, personal computing products, and portable digital music players, as well as a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions and third-party hardware and software products. The most important of which are enumerated below: 1. Phone – iPhone combines a mobile phone and an iPod, Internet communication device in a single handheld product. 2. iPad – is a multi-purpose mobile device, for browsing web, sending and reading email, viewing photos & watching videos, listening music, playing games and reading e-books etc. 3. Mac Hardware Products – includes likes of iMac, Mac-Pro and Mac mini. The iMac desktop has design that incorporates display, processor, graphics, storage, and other components in a single enclosure 4. iPod – line of portable digital media players includes lik es of iPod touch, iPod shuffle and iPod classic. Pod is a flash-memory-based device with a widescreen display, a Multi-Touch user interface. 5. iTunes – is an application, which supports the sale, purchase, download, organization and playback of digital video and audio files and is also available for both the Mac and the Windows based computers. The Company not only sells to retail and bulk consumers, but also to small and mid-sized businesses, and to educational institutions, enterprises and government customers. The Company’s fiscal year ends on the last Saturday of September and is of 52 or 53-week period.The company has almost 60400 permanent employees and has the second largest market cap after IBM with about 563. 79 Billion dollars and an equal enterprise value, with revenues in excess of 142. 36 Billion dollars and with and EBITDA of 53. 27 billion dollars. B. Business Strategy & Organization The Company’s business strategy is to uniquely leverage its abi lity to design, develop its own operating system, hardware, applications software’s, to its customers, and new products and new solutions with superior usage ease and seamless integration and innovative design.The Company’s strategy, also includes and basically rests on, expanding its distribution network so in order to effectively reach more customers. The Company manages business primarily on geographical basis and has segregated the business locations of its customers into the following 1. The Americas consisting of both North and South America, 2. Europe, Middles East and Africa, 3. Japan, 4. Asia-Pacific, Australia and Asian countries and 5. Retail. It is to be noted that all the above four segments do not include the retail segment figures and strategy.The retail segment consists of stores directly opened by the company and managed by it. C. Competition The products and services offered by the company are a part of highly competitive markets segment it faces stif f and aggressive competition in almost all areas of its business. The market is characterized by very frequent new product introductions and a rapid technological advancement that has substantial capabilities of use of mobile and related communications devices.There is a cut throat competition in the market where the company’s operates, as the competitors are continuously innovating and selling products at extremely low rates. However still the company has been able to maintain its market brand values and sees a good and extremely high level of operating cash flows generation. The Company’s major services i. e. digital content services is facing significant competition from other companies who are promoting their own digital music, services and content products, including free peer to peer video and music services.Some of Apple’s competitors have enough substantial resources and may provide such products and services in market at virtually little or no even prof it to compete with the Apple’s offerings. The most important and major company’s competitors can be classified in various ways as below: However for our study later on, we shall consider HPQ or Hewitt Packard as a close competitor. PART II A. Stock Price Analysis For our stock price analysis, we consider the time period from 16 Mar – 2012 to 6 April – 2012.However it is to be noted that the time frame provided here is not ample for a detailed study and an accurate one for future predictions. We first study the movement of the Apple Inc. stock price movements’ vis-a-vis the S&P 500. From the above figure it is clear that the movement of Apple is less volatile than that of the Index. It is also to be noted that the pattern of movement of Apple’s price show that it is lagging behind or trailing the trend movement of the index. Furthermore in the period under consideration above there seems to be an immediate uptrend developing and sustaining.Al so the major point of astonishment here is during the period post 3 April 2012, the S&P 500 and Apple’s stock prices are moving in opposite direction thereby indicating of some news based movement. This move was probably preempting the Q2 filing by the company which was due later in the next week. However no serious trend or movement is visible in either of the charts above. We do the same comparison of Apple with its peer HPQ for the same period. From the graph above it is quite clear that where Apple’s price movement is positively trending upwards, that of HOQ is a sideways movement without any perfect present trend or direction.The reason being the expectations from the forthcoming Q2 results of Apple, which was an event based movement for Apple, which was absent for HPQ. Now we study the movement of the stock prices on a standalone basis. From the above diagram it is clear that there is no significant or sudden movement in prices or volume of the stock. However the y both show a good trend, and there is not much pressure on the prices of the stock at higher levels which is shown by the build of white candles and an uptrend, which indicates of further upside room present in the stock.However this seems to be news based event and should be properly traded. In all there are five black and ten white candles, which show an imminent uptrend in the stock price, which is also supported by sustenance in the daily volumes. PART III A. Risk Return Analysis We now perform a risk return analysis on the stock. We use the concepts of CAPM model and data for the period as specified in the above segment and calculate different measures as shown below and abridged in the accompanying excel file.From the above calculations we see that the Beta of Apple is lesser than that of HPQ and more close to 1 which resembles that Apple is less volatile than HPQ and more in tandem with the normal or broad market movement. On the other hand HPQ has a high beta indicating tha t the movement in prices of HPQ is more volatile and would yield a higher return, either positive or negative, as compared to Apple. This is also visible in the fact that the Expected return of HPQ is less than that of Apple, which is at least a percentage point or a 100 bps better than HPQ.It is also seen that Apple has been able to give positive returns as compared to HPQ and even the market. This means that Apple has been able to outperform the market. The reason behind the same is the fact that it is expected that the results of Apple for Q2 are going to be better due to the fact that they have recently launched new products and expanded on existing sales and product line, which would result in better revenue e, margins and sales and net profits, which would ultimately react in the EPS.Hence the returns of Apple are positive and more than that of HPQ. This indicates the fact that Apple seems to be an underpriced stock and should be bought as it seems to be giving more returns th an the expected returns and compared to HPA and the index is an outperformer due to more fundamental reasons likes above expectation performance rather than purely and only technical reasons. All this is pretty evident in the Beta and the Expected returns of the stock.PART IV REFERENCES: 1. Thirty Year US T-Bill rate; Available at http://www. bloomberg. com/markets/rates-bonds/government-bonds/us/ 2. Apple Inc. Annual Report and About Company; Available at http://secfilings. nasdaq. com/edgar_conv_html%2f2011%2f10%2f26%2f0001193125-11-282113. html#FIS_BUSINESS 3. Stock Prices Data, Apple, S&P, HPQ; Available at http://finance. yahoo. com 4. Apple Competitors; Available at http://www. nasdaq. com/symbol/aapl/competitors

Friday, August 30, 2019

Users of Accounting Information

Name: – Nilashish Ghosh Dastidar (Roll No. – 8) Class: – PGDRM (2012-14) ASSIGNMENT: – BRIEFLY STATE THE USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION. Accounting Information provides quantitative and qualitative information about the various transactions and events of an accounting entity. The Accounting Information system of the accounting entity captures quantitative data and processes the pecuniary transactions related to the functioning of the same.Contemporary systems like ERP also encompasses in its scope the traditional quantitative Accounting Information besides some qualitative or non-financial information like customer satisfaction quotients, employee satisfaction quotients and product or service quality. Accounting Information is utilized for â€Å"predicting†, â€Å"comparing† and â€Å"evaluating† the earning power and financial health of the said entity by a set of users. Today, all types of organizations, from manufacturing behemoths like Tata Steel, Reliance Industries Limited etc. o Small & Medium Enterprises have need for Accounting Information. Every sector of the economy, from Manufacturing to Service to Retail and even Non-Profit organizations like NGOs, require such Accounting Information. The users of Accounting Information for any accounting entity are broadly classified into Internal and External categories. A) Internal Users – This category of users are associated with the management of the concern for which the Accounting Information is sought to be collected and provided.They include the individual and collective decision making bodies in the concern such as the Owners on one hand and the team, departmental, regional and top Managers of the entity. All Officers, Managers and the Directors/Partners come in this group of users. Occasionally, the internal Auditors would have to refer to past financial information statements of the entity and thereby become an internal user of Accounting Informa tion. The internal users generally rely on any Source Document/s (documentary evidence of transactions like Bills, Cash-Memo etc. ), P/L Account, Income & Expenditure Account, Balance Sheet, Cash Fund Flow Statements, Balance Sheets, Explanatory Notes & Schedules Of Workings Annexed To The Financial Statements & also Planning & Budgetary information. (1) Owners – They need Accounting Information mainly to determine the prospect of the investments already made, the solvency of the operation, the efficiency and profitability of the business and the optimum capital/resource utilizations. (2) Managers – This group of users generally and uniformly requires the Accounting Information for the planning, operating and controlling aspects of the concern.B) External Users – The external users consist of two distinct sub-groups – the Financial Group and the Public Group. Unlike the internal users, the need of the external users with regard to Accounting Information i s explicitly different from group to group. Though they generally rely on the similar sources of Accounting Information like Internal users – that is, P/L Account, Balance Sheet, Notes & Annexure Attached To The Financial Statements, however, there are also some specialized types of Accounting Information demanded by the External users like Tax Returns, Trade Policies etc. 1) Financial Group consists of the Investors, Lenders/Bankers and Suppliers/Trade Creditors of the concern. a) Investors – need Accounting Information to decide about the risk factor involved in making investment and in holding on to the equities they already have in the said entity. The profit and loss statement of the entity would also motivate them to either increase or decrease their stakes. b) Lenders/Bankers – assess the confidence of the payment of interest and the repayment of the principal on the loans extended to the entity by the latter based on the Accounting Information. ) Supplie rs/Trade Creditors – for them, the Accounting Information provide with a reasonable idea on the credibility of the entity and thereby allowing them to decide whether to continue to supply (credit sale) inputs to the said entity. (2) Public Group comprises of the Government Agencies & Tax Authorities, Industrial Authorities & Research Workers, Labour Unions, Employees & Customers. a) Government & Tax Agencies – As because the financial health of the nation is ultimately the responsibility of the Government, hence any economic activity today is controlled and regulated by the same.It has to judge the prospect of a business and the mode of its functioning. Naturally, it would require any information to decide proper allocation of natural resources, impose duties etc. The Tax authorities would need to judge the appropriate tax levies on the entity. b) Labour Unions & Employees – both rely on the Accounting Information to assess the health of the entity since their p resent and future benefits and growth are both essentially dependent on the fortunes of the said concern. ) Customers – they range from the process owners in the manufacturing or service chains linked to the entity in question to the wholesalers/retailers stocking on the product or services from the entity and ultimately the end-consumers. Depending upon the assurance of continuity of the entity, will these customers be ready to maintain their association with the concern or switch over some substitute/competitive entity. d) Industrial Authorities & Researchers – The Industrial regulators need information to take decisions regarding subsidies, grants, relief etc.The Researchers need information to carry out analyses and research on the entity’s operation. DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION: – ———————– CATEGORY OF USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION INTERNAL USERS EXTERNAL USERS FINANCIAL GROUP PUBLIC GROUP – OWNERS – DIRECTORS – MANAGERS – OFFICERS – AUDITORS – INVESTORS – LENDERS – BANKERS – SUPPLIERS – TRADE CREDITORS – GOVT. AGENCIES – LABOUR UNION – EMPLOYEES – CUSTOMERS – INDUSTRIAL AUTHORITIES

Code of Ethics Essay

Introduction The organization’s code of ethics serves as a guide to its employees when making difficult decisions. Ethics helps professionals with their actions and practices that are directed to improve the welfare of people in an ethical way (Fremgen, 2009). An organization’s culture and mission statement also help its employees make ethical decisions. The Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) organization is the national public health organization that is committed to protect the health and safety of our nation. CDC’s mission statement focuses on to protect the health and safety of our communities through prevention strategies and control of disease. The mission statement motivates the employees to do their best to prevent diseases and infection. The code of ethics provides guidance to ensure that CDC employees avoid situations that could violate ethics law (CDC, 2013). The organization’s mission statement and culture reflect its ethical values. Organizat ion’s Goals and how they are tied to its ethical principles. The organization’s goals are to provide protection for our nation’s health and safety. The CDC has pledged to treat all human beings with dignity, honesty, and respect. They have also pledged to provide an environment for positive personal growth and integrity. The CDC provides employment for over 17,000 employees and they work to provide a diverse work environment where everyone is treated equally, respectfully, and with human dignity. The ethical principles tied to the organizational goals are autonomy and integrity. Everyone deserves to be treated with respect, and everyone deserves the truth. The CDC works to provide the most truthful information regarding disease, both treatment and prevention. They are using new technology to make access to information easier, as well as research becoming more scientific and in depth. It is important to the CDC that everyone in our  nation is provided with the most up to date information. Organization’s role and importance of the ethical values The CDC organization’s role is paramount to the continued health of this nation. The CDC has responsibilities toward everyone with in this country to provide education and protection about health and disease prevention. From an ethical stand point the CDC uses the theory of utilitarianism which is basically doing the most good for the greatest number of people. With the CDC, a team of nurses, doctors and scientists do their best day in and day out to do oversee the nation’s ongoing health hazards by providing proven research and constant breakthroughs to the public. Also with the CDC being a federally funded agency under the department of health and human services, the healthcare organization must practice ethical behaviors with one which is justice â€Å"Fairness in all our actions with other people. It means that we must carefully analyze how to balance our behavior and be fair to all. Justice implies that the same rules will apply to everyone (Fremgen, 2009).† With their use of technological advancements no single person or persons are given more or less information and or protection from illnesses or disabilities. The other must be responsibility, responsibility is a sense of accountability for one’s actions. Responsibility implies dependability. A sense of responsibility can become weakened when one is faced with peer pressure. Medical professionals must be able to answer or be accountable for their actions (Fremgen, 2009).† Since this organization is federally funded it has a duty to every American to follow through with every part of their mission statement for a healthier and well safeguarded nation. â€Å"Detecting and responding to new and emerging health threats (Centers for Disease Control, 2013).† This means that as healthcare organization workers are working around the clock to prevent new illness while trying to make old illness a thing of the past. Operating on the fact that if one is human and is part of t his country then they have a right to protection from emerging health dangers. Relationship between the organization’s culture and ethical decision-making The Organizational Culture revolves around creating a work environment where employee health and safety is valued, supported and promoted through workplace health programs policies, benefits, and environmental changes (CDC, 2013). In order to achieve this goal the CDC  promotes positive health based programs both in communities and places of employment. If employers create a healthier workplace then not only will it decrease the likelihood that employees will have to miss work due to injury or illness, it will also ensure higher productivity from staff. If companies enact policies and procedures that support health it will make that company more attractive place to work for both existing employees and potential new employees. The five main categories that CDC recommends offering health information and care for employees are behavioral health, health screening, mental health, injury, and adult immunizations (CDC, 2013). Providing services for things like depression, alcohol and substance abuse, smoking cessation, and nutrition courses will help provide overall better lives for employees which will result in having more highly motivated productive workers while they are on the job.. Some ideas for promoting a healthier workplace to lower obesity would be offering lunches to employees to purchase that consist of fresh fruits, vegetables, and salads. Employers can put together exercise groups or offer reimbursement to employees who obtain gym memberships and attend at least four days a week. Importance of the organization’s ethical values supporting your ethical values It is important that the ethical values of an organization support the ethical values of its members/staff. Without the support and understanding of ethics in the workplace, situations can become incredibly hard for not only the staff but also for the patients involved. The principles and values mentioned in oaths and declarations form the basis for ethical practices in health care. â€Å"Despite differences, these works often emphasize several common value orientations or ethical principles, including beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, respect for patient autonomy, and confidentiality.† (Gabel, 2011) As a rebirth of interest in medicinal ethics is not only a positive influence for patients, but is also very crucial to all medical staff members. Research has been collected to suggest that medical professionals, particularly physicians, often have a rising burnout rate when they perceive that the ethics and values they stand by are not the same as the organization they are connected to and work with. Doctors and other medical staff personnel who are faced with overwhelming working conditions, negative influences to their own morals, are most likely attend to these situations in different methods in attempting to save  his/her personal resources. â€Å"However, overwhelming work demands or conflicts involving basic values make increased stress, diminished or depleted resources, and more likely causes burnout. (Gabel, 2011) To not accept low-paying patients because of government insurance, such as Medicaid, could be considered unethical. Even though a code of ethics can form a bas eline for unethical behavior, such behavior should be viewed as unethical in the first place. When employees share the same values they will react the same when such problems arise. It is not farfetched to assume that organizations will run smoother when its workforce agrees on what is moral behavior and what is not, at least with respect to the conduct of business. Social Responsibility for CDC in the community The social responsibilities for this organization in the community are to continually inform and educate the people of the importance in preventing the conditions that may affect them as a whole. According from the Public Health Reports, â€Å"Understanding the multilevel and overlapping nature of these epidemic, and their social and structural determinants, is the key to designing and implementing more effective prevention programs† (Dean & Fenton. 2010). An example of what this organization is socially responsible for is when they are dealing with individuals who are affected by HIV, Viral hepatitis, STIs, and TB. They are responsible for informing an individual with how to properly go about their disease or infections, they are provided the information they need that includes how to overcome being socially impaired due to their conditions, and they are also offered interventions to help them cure or proper treatments of their condition. According to the Report of the National Expert Panel from the CDC website, they have made suggestions like opening both a YMCA and health clinics in housing communities to help promote health. They also suggested that they train more community activists that can serve as advocates in the community for healthy families and also to open book banks and create walking paths. They also suggested that the CDC can help the communities by investigating social determinant of health, help develop community-based systems that help with health disparities and also to use more evidence based programs in the schools. Conclusion CDC is the nation’s leading public health agency that protects the health and safety of the members of our community. The organization uses ethical approach when serving the nation. CDC has a culture that supports and develops ethical practices, raising staff awareness, and tools to analyze ethical issues (CDC, 2013). The organization follows the policy of Code of Federal Regulations provided by U.S. Health and Human Services in any research involving human subjects. CDC has many research centers to conduct prevention research to prevent and control chronic and acute diseases. References Centers for Disease Control. (2013). Mission Statement, Public Health Ethics, Workplace Health Ethics. Retrieved from Dean, Hazel D ScD, MPH and Fenton, Kevin A MD, PhD. (2010). Public Health Reports. Addressing Social Determinants of Health in the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, and Tuberculosis. Retrieved from Finegan, J. (1994). The impact of personal values on judgments of ethical behavior in the Workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(9), 747. Retrieved from Fremgen, B. F. (2009). Medical law and ethics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Gabel, S. (2011). Ethics and Values in Clinical Practice: Whom Do They Help? Mayo Clinic proceeding 86(5):421-424. Retrieved from Recommendations for future efforts in community health promotion. Report of the National expert Panel on Community Health Promotion. Retrieved from

Thursday, August 29, 2019

A research proposal for a research project in the area of management Essay

A research proposal for a research project in the area of management - Essay Example In the current competitive business world, leaders or managers are looking for making employees productive in order to improve organizational performance. Effective leadership and management styles have become the significant tools for improving the internal operations, responding rapidly to external opportunities, streamlining the product development or management, achieving technological breakthroughs and managing challenges in the business environment. There has been an extensive body of research exploring the issue of effective leadership and management styles employed in the current business environment to improve organizational performance (Armstrong 2009; Yukl, 2012). Researchers have realized the significant of successful business operations through employing effective leadership management style in the current competitive business environment (Darling and Heller, 2012). Therefore, this research proposal seeks to offer an analysis on the way organizations can create change th rough employing effective leadership and management styles; thus achieving effective business performance. ... Research Questions 1. To what extent do effective leadership and management styles affect workers task performance? 2. How do effective leadership and management styles influence organizational change? 3. What is the relationship between effective leadership and management styles and employee job satisfaction? 4. How effective leadership and management styles do contribute to increased organizational performance level? Hypotheses Effective leadership and management styles employed in a particular organisation contributes to job satisfaction, increased productivity and influences wok performance as opposed to lack of effective leadership management styles in another organization. Literature Review Varied literatures have attempted to examine the way effective leadership and management styles have contributed to significant organizational performance in an organization. The Relationship between Effective Leadership and Management Styles and Employees Job Satisfaction Effective leadersh ip and management styles have been linked with workers contentment. Schoemaker, Krupp and Howland (2013, p. 132) argue that employing effective leadership management roles contributes to employee satisfaction. This is crucial because satisfied employees can work together as a team toward increasing organizational productivity. The connection between organizational management styles and labor contentment cannot be overstated. This is because effective match between management styles and organizational operation realities can substantially lead to high level of performance. Raes, Heijltjes, Glunk and Roe (2011, p. 103) add that management is considered as one of the significant

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Computer sciences and Information technology Essay

Computer sciences and Information technology - Essay Example What functions constitute a complete information security program? Network security administration, responses to incidents,, management of risks, measurement, centralized authentication, system security administration, assessment of legal claims, coaching, susceptibility assessment, testing systems, goals and adherence. What is the typical size of the security staff in a small organization? A medium sized organization? A large organization? A very large organization? The smallest has one fulltime and one or two assistants The second one is medium sized with one fulltime and two or three assistants Thirdly it is the large one with one of two fulltime admins, sixteen assistants and three to four technicians Lastly it is the large size. The large size has twenty full time admins and forty assistants. Where can an organization place the information security unit? Where should (and shouldn’t) it be placed? Different organizations have different locations and cite advantages and dis advantages for each location. The best locations are; insurance and risk management, information technology, legal department, operations or administrative services. Locations not advisable include accounting and finance, internal auditing, security, help desk and facilities management. The chain of command as well as recourse allocation is critical for a working placement.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Training and Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Training and Development - Essay Example It contributes greatly in the future of any business concerning with its performance as well as its productivity. This paper highlights the challenges of identifying training needs and importance of clear and measurable objectives. Moreover this paper also entails the role of adult learning principles in time of planning implementation strategies and the impact of workplace environment on the transfer of training. The Challenges of Identifying Training Needs In this essay, it is clear that the related case studies i.e. ‘Developing a training package at Westcan’ and ‘Meeting organisational politics’ demonstrated certain challenges related with identifying the training needs. The challenges of identifying training needs of related the cases are as follows: Lack of Training Packages As per the case studies, the one of the major challenges related with identifying the training needs can be attributed with the lack of training packages. In relation to the case ‘Developing a training package at Westcan,’ it has been identified that although the managers were enthusiastic about the training but due to the lack of adequate funds with Westcan Hydraulics, it was not possible for to offer training to the managers. Correspondingly, it can be argued that without adequate funds, it is quite difficult to identify and assess the training needs (Blanchard & Thacker, 2007). ... Hence, such inability of top level managers can be considered as another challenge in the course of assessing the training needs (Blanchard & Thacker, 2007). Decision Makers In the case of ‘Meeting organisational politics,’ it can found that an John a professional working in the department of training proposed for interpersonal skill program for the section manager to develop interpersonal relationship but no one in the organisation take a vast decision for this program. Hence, lack of decision making initiatives also serves as a serious challenge for the assessing the training needs (Delahaye, 2011). Support of Management The most important challenge of identifying training needs can be associated with the degree of support from the management. Without proper support from the management, it is relatively difficult to identify the training needs. Similarly, the analysis of the case ‘Meeting organisational politics,’ it was found that when John asked the mana gement about the development programs in interpersonal relations for the section manager, the assistant director was reluctant to support the program which acted as a barrier for undertaking proper training need assessment (Delahaye, 2011). The Importance of Clear and Measurable Objectives It has been ascertained from the analysis of the case i.e. ‘A training experience’ that clear and measurable objective of the training and development objectives is essential requirement attaining favourable outcome. It has been identified that clear and measurable training and development objectives facilitates organisation to design its training program in the most influential manner (Clifford & Thorpe, 2007). Reduces Training and Recruitment Costs Another importance of clear and measurable

Monday, August 26, 2019

Marketing Ethics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Marketing Ethics - Research Paper Example 104) describe marketing ethics as a dimension of social responsibility that involves principles and standards that delineate satisfactory behavior in marketing. Marketers should be careful and conscious of moral principles for tolerable behavior from numerous stand points such as the industry, company, consumers, society, and exceptional interest groups. When marketing actions diverge from the established principles, the exchange practice can collapse, resulting in consumer frustration, lack of reliance and law suits (Arnold, 2009, p. 113). An ethical issue is an identifiable dilemma that necessitates an organization or individual to decide amongst numerous procedures that must be assessed as wrong or right (Pride & Ferrell, 2011, p. 104). Any time an activity causes marketers or consumers in their target markets to feel manipulated or cheated; a marketing ethical situation exists, despite the legality of the activity. Ethical issues in marketing arise from product, distribution, pro motion, and pricing issues. The concept of segmentation and target marketing has been on the increase in the contemporary world. Market promotion and targeting can generate moral matters in a multiplicity of ways, among them forged and deceptive adverts and controlling sales advertising and targeting a market segment (Moore, 1990, p. 45). Marketers have fragmented consumer markets resulting to increased need for focused target marketing. Despite the role of recognizing and fulfilling customer wants, more target marketing has come with augmented denigration. Though target marketing is widely regarded as the embodiment of marketing conception, it has in certain cases been disparaged as unethical (Smith & Cooper-Martins, 1997, p. 1). Particularly, widespread media focus has been dedicated to the aiming of grown-up customer sections referred as susceptible with manufactured goods mulled over as damaging. This disapproval of targeting has engrossed merchandises such

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Economic growth in China and its impact on American economy Essay - 1

Economic growth in China and its impact on American economy - Essay Example The developed nations have understood that after the implementation of the quota free regime, the Republic of China has captured and secured major share of the industrial and production activities. The Golden Age of the China started soon after its amalgamation with World Trade Organization. The membership of World trade Organization has been of economic and industrial benefits for the country. Secondly, the normalization of the Communist China’s diplomatic relationship with United States, have further boosted the momentum of Chinese economic activities. These two events are important because they signify the recognition of Chinese economy by United States and the world economic community as an equal partner. Since its membership, the country has become an important member of the world economic community and plays an important role in the global economy. The partnership with WTO has increased the scope of China’s market for international trade and investment, and has opened up the World economy for unrestricted China’s exports. Economic analysts have viewed the so far progress positively, and considered it as a positive force for China’s economic development, however others believed that the competition of foreign imports and foreign enterprises in China might destroy important domestic enterprises in China’s agricultural, manufacturing and service sectors. WTO membership will hasten the relative decline of the agricultural sector and the relative rise of service sectors dealing with financial services and telecommunication. Secondly, the state sector will decline relatively to the non-state sectors and efficiency in Chinese enterprises will increase with foreign competition when tariffs are lowered and foreign firms can enter the Chinese market. Although the concerns of the analysts have come up to be true, however the Chinese government’s investment friendly policy and availability of local, cheap and skilled labor

Saturday, August 24, 2019

How can people be achieved between cultures Research Paper

How can people be achieved between cultures - Research Paper Example John Stuart mill and John Locke advocated for upholding human rights earlier than other scholars. Nevertheless, this does not necessarily mean that they were the one responsible in the formulation of human rights. The universality of human rights cuts across various cultures. Even though appreciation of the rights occurred in the Western world and as characterised in both the American and French revolution, the historical development of human rights is much older (Marek, 2010). In an attempt to understand the current global cultural politics, modern scholars draw insight from modernity. This view holds that modernity originated from the West in a Judaeo Christian setting. The interrelation between economic, scientific, philosophical and artistic revolutions led to an understanding of novel ways about people, the environment and political power. These thoughts did not lead to globalization, but through military skill and economic imperialism the Europeans contributed to modernity (Reus-Smit, 2011). There are many opinions on what constitutes human rights, the perceptions differ from an intellectual or political point of view. Additionally, the differences seem to originate from the historical evolution of human rights. Human rights originate from people with diverse backgrounds. Another view holds that human rights can be divided into; whether based on an individual’s status or status of group, the degree to which people are treated depending on success or acknowledgement, the importance of rights, obligation and thoughts on the interdependency between the two or the emphasis on economic and social rights vs. civil and political rights (Plantilla & Raj, 1997). The result of the cold war ushered in a period with many uncertainties. There was an end to the super power enmity and the North-South divide. Nevertheless, this period concurred with many world problems including unemployment, poverty,

Friday, August 23, 2019

Pintex Organics London Ltd Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Pintex Organics London Ltd - Assignment Example The first problem emerged when the company entered into a contract with Mixurs Ltd to supply it with equipment, but the equipment was found not to be compatible with the installations in the company’s premises, hence, cancellation of the contract. The second major problem concerning the contracts occurred when the negotiations for a contract under which the company would provide catering services to members of the International Olympics Committee collapsed because the parties could not agree on the contract terms. As a result, the company lost the contract and the financial benefits that could have arisen out of it. Therefore, the company needs to ensure that its interests are in tandem with the English contract law. Also, there is need for the company to review its terms of agreement to avoid a situation such as that of Miah where the former director of the company enters into contract with the immediate potential client of the company. In regard to the cancellation of contra ct offered to Mixurs Ltd, it was in order as the company was exercising the right to cancel a contract stated on the Cancellation of Contracts made in a Consumer’s Home or Place of Work Regulations 2008 Act Article 8(1-6) (The National Archives, 2008). However, it would be advisable that the company should exercise caution when entering in contract with other companies when intending to purchase. This will be crucial in ensuring that the company does not incur losses or get substandard equipments (Taylor, 2009, p. 101). Concerning the second scenario where the negotiations between the company and the International Olympics Committee collapsed, it is important that such occurrences should be avoided or minimized in the future. It is no doubt that such a contract would have not only offer the company financial benefits but boost its quest to becoming the leading provider of catering services in the forthcoming 2012 Olympic games. Losing such a contract was not desirable for the company’s business prospects. The company should know that it should not necessarily bid the adequate price but, rather, the consideration should be of sufficient value in the eyes of the law (Keenan, 2006, p. 29). As the Chappell & Co Ltd v Nestle Co Ltd (1960) AC 87 showed, the offeror needs to make a consideration that is sufficient and not necessarily adequate (Sealy and Worthington 2010, p. 45). Applying this in the contract might not have afforded Pedro’s company the financial rewards they intended but would have provided them with the opportunity to maintain International Olympic Committee as a client for future services, especially in the forthcoming 2012 Olympics games, hence, more revenues in the future. Apart from that, hosting of such high profile clients would have boosted the reputation of the company thus attracting more clients which will translate to more revenues. It can be argued strongly that Miah was not comfortable with the contract terms of the POL Ltd to International Olympics Committee which he may have seen to cost the company both the revenues and the reputation. He was, thus, convinced that it was more worth to resign from the company’s directorship and open his own restaurant in order to gain benefit from providing services to International Olympics Committee both at that time and in the future. As noted, the company’s other problem arise from the terms of agreement for the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Movie about arranged Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Movie about arranged - Assignment Example evident in the film when Rochel’s brother asks her if there were â€Å"shvartzas† a derogatory slang name for blacks in Yiddish at the school where she works. It becomes clear that the father also shares the same prejudice as his son when he asks Rochel if all her students are blacks. In a Jewish marriage, the man is the head of the family and the provider. If the daughter of the house is getting married, he is the one who protects her and exercises authority on the suitors sent to her by the matchmaker. During the dating period, he asks the girl out on a date, which takes place at a public venue. In the Muslim setup, the man is the head of the family and his authority is never to be challenged directly. When selected as a potential suitor he meets with the girl in her parents’ home and the meeting takes place under their supervision. Therefore, the man is portrayed in both marriage settings as the figure of

Budget and Budgeting Techniques Essay Example for Free

Budget and Budgeting Techniques Essay Answer- 1: Answer- 1 India was a closed economy in the beginning. Policy banning imports. The Liberalization of India’s Government in 1991. New Industrial Policy. Strict policies regarding the entry of foreign brands. Trade rules regulations simplified. Foreign investment increased. Pepsi enters in 1986. Coca-Cola follows in 1993. Contd †¦ Slide 14: Unlawful to market under their Western name in India Pepsi became â€Å"Lehar Pepsi†. Coca-Cola merged with Parle and became â€Å"Coca-Cola India†. Different Laws for Pepsi and Coke Coca-Cola agreed to sell off 49% of its stock as a condition of entering and buying out an Indian company. Pepsi entered earlier, and was not subject to this. Contd †¦ Slide 15: India forced Coke to sell 49% of its equity to Indian investors in 2002. Coke asked for a second extension that would delay it until 2007 which was denied. Pepsi was held to this since they entered India in a different year. Coke asked the Foreign Investment Promotion Board to block the votes of the Indian shareholders who would control 49% of Coke. Change in oversight of the FIPB: Past lobbying efforts made useless. Contd †¦ Slide 16: Could these problems have been forecasted prior to market entry? Probably not Inconsistent, and changing government. How could these developments in the political arena have been handled differently? Coke could of agreed to start new bottling plants instead of buying out Parle, and thus wouldn’t of had to agree to sell 49% of their equity. Answer-2: Answer-2 Coca-Cola’s Pros Cons of Timing of Entry in the Indian Market: Coca-Cola’s P ros Cons of Timing of Entry in the Indian Market Benefits Parle offered its bottling plants in 4 major cities. Made its return to India with Britannia Industries India Ltd. Disadvantages Rigid Rules and Regulations. Buying of bottling plants leads to 49% disinvestment. Local demand of carbonated drinks is as very low. Harder to establish themselves. Pepsi’s Pros Cons of Timing of Entry in the Indian Market: Pepsi’s Pros   Cons of Timing of Entry in the Indian Market Benefits Own set up green filled bottling plants. Advantage of coming before Coca Cola. Government policies favored the company. Joint venture with Voltas and Punjab Agro. Gained 26% share by 1993. Disadvantages Pepsi approached Parle but it was rejected. Launched 7up and there is stiff competition in the market for lemon drinks. Answer-3 Responses to India’s Enormity : Answer-3 Responses to India’s Enormity Pepsi and coca-cola responded in many ways to the enormity of India in terms of it population and geography. Conti .. Cont..: Cont.. Product Policies: Catering to Indian tastes Entering with products close to those already available in India such as colas, fruit drinks, carbonated waters Waiting to introduce American type drinks Coca-Cola introducing Sprite recently Introducing new products Bottled water Conti .. Cont.. : Cont.. Promotional Activities: Both advertise and use promotional material at Navratri . Pepsi gives away premium rice and candy with Pepsi Coca-Cola offers free passes, Coke giveaways as well as vacations Use of different campaigns for different areas of India â€Å" India A† campaigns try to appeal to young urbanites â€Å" India B† campaigns try to appeal to rural areas Cont†¦: Cont†¦ Pricing Policies: Pepsi started out with an aggressive pricing policy to try to get immediate market share from Indian competitors Coca-Cola cut its prices by 15-25% in 2003 Attempt to encourage consumption to try to compete with Pepsi and gain market share Contd ..: Contd .. Distribution Arrangements: Production plants and bottling centers placed in large cities all around India More added as demand grew and as new products were added Answer-4 Coke and Pepsi’s â€Å"Glocalization Strategies†: Answer-4 Coke and Pepsi’s â€Å" Glocalization Strategies† What is â€Å" Glocalization †? Global + Localization = Glocalization By taking a product global, a firm will have  more success if they adapt it specifically to the location and culture that they are trying to market it in. Both companies have successfully implemented glocalization Pepsi’s Glocalization: Pepsi’s Glocalization Pepsi forms joint venture when first entering India with two local partners, Voltas and Punjab Agro, forming â€Å"Pepsi Foods Ltd †. In 1990, Pepsi Foods Ltd. changed the name of their product to â€Å"Lehar Pepsi† to conform with foreign collaboration rules . In keeping with local tastes, Pepsi launched its Lehar 7UP in the clear lemon category. Pepsi’s Glocalization: Pepsi’s Glocalization Advertising is done during the cultural festival of Navrtri , a traditional festival held in the town of Gujarat which lasts for nine days. Pepsi’s most effective glocalization strategy has been sponsoring world famous Indian athletes, such as cricket and soccer players. Coca-Cola’s Glocalization: Coca-Cola’s Glocalization First joined forces with the local snack food producer Britannia Industries India Ltd. in the early 90’s. Formed a joint venture with the market leader Parle in 1993. For the festival of Navratri , Coca-Cola issued free passes to the celebration in each of its â€Å"Thumps Up† bottles. Also ran special promotions where people could win free vacations to Goa, a resort state in western India. Coca-Cola’s Glocalization: Coca-Cola’s Glocalization Coca-Cola also hired several famous â€Å"Bollywood† actors to endorse their products. Who could forget†¦ Answer-5: Answer-5 Yes, we agree that Coca-Cola India made mistakes in planning and managing its return to India. They wrongly forecasted Indian political environment due to which they had to dilute their stakes later (49% disinvestment). They rejected the plan to put up green fields bottling plants as they took over Parle’s existing bottling plants. Coca cola tried to get extensions twice. Answer -6: Answer -6 Pepsi and Coke can confront the issue of water use in the manufacturing of their products by the use of canal irrigation rainwater harvesting. Then they can also put water recycling plant to treat the discharged water from their factories and then they can provide that water to farmers for their agricultural use. This way the ground water problem can also be solved and managed. Cont..: Cont.. Coke can further defuse boycotts or demonstrations against their products in California by doing Ad-campaigns in which they can ask the experts from the ministry of health to convey the message to the public that their products are safe and healthy. They can also hire celebrities to do the Ads for their products because the public follows them. Coke should address the group directly because their company was not wrong and they should justify themselves. Answer-7: Pepsi Better marketing and advertising strategies Widely accepted More preferable More market share Less Political conflicts Coke Government conflicts Trailing Pepsi in market share Pepsi will fare better in the long run Answer-7 Answer-8 Pepsi’s Lessons Learned: Answer-8 Pepsi’s Lessons Learned Beneficial to keep with local tastes Beneficial to pay attention to market trends Celebrity appeal makes for exceptional advertising It pays to keep up with emerging trends in the market Coca-Cola’s Lesson’s Learned: Coca-Cola’s Lesson’s Learned Pay specific attention to deals made with the government Establish a good business relationship with the government Investment in quality products Advertising is crucial

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Vinamilk Marketing Analysis

Vinamilk Marketing Analysis This report aims to analyse how the strategic operational process and management contributed to the business vision of Vinamilk ¹ which is becoming the leading milk products manufacturer in Vietnam. First of all, by identifying precisely customers expectations of company products, the operations performance objectives will be determined in order to make the process of producing and delivering products could be processed efficiently. These objectives are aiming for the final purpose of the whole process is providing products in a way that maximise customers satisfaction. Secondly, the performance objectives identified in the previous part will then be translated into significant action which is designing the manufacturing process. Put simply, manufacturing process of the company will be designed appropriate for what the company is trying to achieve. The chosen process design also needs to match with the characteristics of an output resources and it is manifested through lay-out. Finally, some recommendations will be provided in order to overcome the shortcomings that the company has been facing in managing its production and delivery process 1.1 Background of company Vinamilk company established in 1976 as the Southern Coffee-Dairy Company, then renamed to United Enterprises of Milk Coffee Cookies and Candies I in 1978 and finally Vietnam Dairy Company was formally established in 1993. In 2003, follows its IPO to the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange, the company legally changed its name to Vietnam Dairy Products Joint Stock Company (VINAMILK). The company is a state owned enterprise in which the government owns about 50.01 % of the shares and the rest of the shares are currently active trading at the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange.The principal activities of Vinamilk are manufacturing and distributing products derived from milk such as fresh-milk, condensed milk, powdered milk, yogurts, ice-cream, cheese and others drinks such as fruit juice and soya milk. According to Euromonitor, it has been the number dairy player in Vietnam for the three years ending 31 December 2007.From its equitization in November 2003 to now, the sales of Vinamilk have experienced an average growth rate of 21%/year. In 2009, total sales of Vinamilk have reached a record of over VND 10,000 billion and its profit also has got the highest amount ever before.Vinamilks main competitors and Dutch Lady Vietnam, a division of Friesland Foods, Nestlà © Vietnam, Abbott, Mead Johnson, Friso and Nutifood Customer Basically, when any company decides to enter a market, identifying its target markets is the very important thing needed to do. By doing so, a company will define precisely the groups of particular customers it wants to serve and therefore could get right products or services to a right person or company. In order to target the market, a company would firstly segment its market into smaller segments, each segment is a group of purchasers with the same set of needs and buyer behavior Back to Vinamilk, by breaking up its market based on analysing demographic and geographic variables, it can be seen that Vinamilks goal is to satisfy all customers from kids to elder in any occupation. Especially, the group of kids under 14-years-old is considered the target market that Vinamilk wants to come forwards. In the present time, Vinamilks segment in rural areas and small towns has been weak, thus, this segment will also become the target market which Vinamilk want to focus more in the early fu ture. With the products which is directly refers to the health of customers as Vinamilks products, quality always is the issue that the customers care the most. Products need to match with the requirement for hygienic and safety food and the ingredients need to be ensured their orginal resources. Otherwise, different customers will have different taste and different preferences, but generally their preference always change, they could also willing to try a new product, new flavor or even the same products with a new layout design. In addition, one of the most important element when choosing a product is price, a product with good quality and acceptable price in comparison with other products will be regarded as a sucessful product. These three elements mentioned above are the requirements of customers to Vinamilk products. After packaging, products are delivered to consumers through two distribution channels: Traditional channel Distributors à ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Outlets à ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Consumers Modern trade Supermarkets / Metro à ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Consumers The distributors, supermakets and outlets are regarded as the internal customers of the company in the supply chain. Delivering products on time is considered the most important thing in which the company needs to concern. If the delivery process because of some reasons are delayed, it will lead to many problems, in which might directly influence to their businesses. CONSUMERS 3.0 Operations INPUT RESOURCES TRANSFORMATION PROCESS OUTPUT RESOURCES Figure 1.1 Operations through-put process (Source: Slack et al.2009) Transformed Resources Raw materials Main ingredients for products derived from milk: imported milk power, fresh milk from domestic farms. for other products: fruit juice, soya beanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Others ingredients: sugar, Transforming Resources Facilities Process technology International standard assembly line Modern manufacturing facilities Staff Group of skilled engineers who control mechanical systems Raw materials quality analysis Processing raw materials Final quality testing processing Packaging Finished products Analyze the 4VS High volume Vinamilk products are produced at 9 factories with the high capactiy approximately of 570.406 tonnes per annum and distributed to all provinces of the country. The manufacturing processes are taken systematically from processing raw materials to packaging finished goods. In each process, a team of staff as engineers and workers will directly specialize in tasks related to this process. Their tasks are repeated and systemized in the standard procedures, therefore it is often worth developing specialized technology that gives higher processing efficiencies ( Slack, et al). Low variety The product portfolio of Vinamilk is diversified with over 200 different types of products however except fruit juice and soya milk, all products are derived from the main resource is milk( Raw materials are gone through the similar processing stages, could have some different preparation in the next stages, but it doesnt impact much on the standardization systems. Low availability (Rowbotham et al) With the stable and predictable demand from customer for dairy products, Vinamilk is always actively the way it produces and distributes products to market through maintaining the stability of milk material sources. Although ice-cream products are products have the seasonal charateristic, with the demand of it in the summer time higher than other season, its changing demand doesnt impact much on the general production situation of the company. Low visibility The way Vinamilk analyses its customerss behaviour basically depends on salespersons who are committed to understand the consumers preferences in their regular contact with customers across different outlets. Performance Objectives The objective of the production management is to produce goods and services of Right Quality and Quantity at the Right time and Right manufacturing cost (Kumar Suresh,2009) Quality Quality means doing things right, trying to satisfy customers by providing goods and services which are fit for their purpose. The quality advantage in manufacturing and service operations can be achieved through a skilled workforce, adequate technology and effective communication of quality standards and job specifications.(Rowbotham,2007) Being the company operating in the food branch, quality is regarded as the first important objective that Vinamilk needs to care for. All Vinamilk products are produced by the modern system machines and closely controlled by the International Quality Control Standards of ISO 9001: 2000 and HACCP certified by the world leading corporations. These productss quality are also ensured to fully announce as stipulated by the Laws under the direct and indirect supervision of competent authorities. With such the control process and strict supervision of competent authorities, released Vinamilk products are qualified with food quality, hygiene and safety standards in accordance with the published standards. Additional, the stability of milk material sources is extremely important as it helps Vinamilk maintains and increases the productivity. As a result, Vinamilk have established stable relationships with suppliers and have committed to purchase high quality fresh milk at the highest price. Th e companys factories, which are located in strategic locations near farms of milk cows, enable the company to maintain and improve these relationships with suppliers. Speed An extensive distribution network located nationwide with 201 distributors and over 141,000 outlets in 64 provinces and continued being expanded over time allows Vinamilk to bring its core products to consumers in a fast and effective way. In addition, Vinamilk has a range of modern factories located along the country that helps to reduce transportation expenses as well as to make a way the companys products are distributed to customers becomes easier and more convenience. Furthermore, the company has two transport enterprises, one is located in suburbs of Hanoi specialised in distributing products for Southern, and one is the main distributor for Northern, which is placed at Ho Chi Minh stuburb. Flexibility Flexibility means being able to change what you do to respond to changes in customer requirements in terms of the products and services design, volume, mix and delivery times. This can be achieved through dependable suppliers, mobility of multi-skilled labour, and versatile equipment, etc. The product portfolio of Vinamilk is so diversified and successfully satisfies the increasing various demands of consumers. The company owns 3 core brands, in which Vinamilk and Dielac are two key brands and Vfresh is a new one but it offers a great potential for development. Vinamilk products are divided into 6 groups and each group also consists of specific brands for specific customers. For instance, group of powered milk: Diealac Alpha for kids. Dielac Pedia for children with poor appetite and malnutrition. Dielac Mama for pregnant and breast feeding woman. Group of liquid milk: For Adults ( 100% Fresh Milk, UHT Milk Flex) For kids ( UHT Milk kid) Vinamilk has continuously introduced to the market its new products to meet the diversified demands of consumers, including Vinamilk Aloe Vera Yogurt Milk with rich source of vitamin A and E, Dielac Diecerna, Vinamilk Slimming Milk, orange smoothies, etc.. Cost With the manufacturing milk products like Vinamilk, milk materials sources being one of the main bought -in items which has a great influence to the price of products. The fluctuations of input resources may be due to many causes, however in general the increase of input resources will lead to the increase of finished products. In order to stabilize the price of products, Vinamilk has established stable relationships with suppliers and till now approximately 60% milk material has been bought from domestic sources. Vinamilks factories are located near farms of milk cows, enable the company to maintain and improve these relationships with suppliers as well as help the company to limit the costs incurred from delivering milk material. Dependability Dependability means the ability of a firm to deliver a product for customers with the exact time promised. Customers might judge the dependability of an operation only after the product and service has been delivered. For instance, one supermarket is the distributor of Vinamilk, the delay of delivering products is shown clearly in the way the supermarkets sheves have been being empty for a long time. This trouble has the huge impact to the business situation of the supermarket while its customers can not find the product they need, and so on. The delay of delivering products to customers may be caused by many reasons in which the most important reason is the quality of manufacturing process. One stage in the process goes wrong, will lead to a whole manufacturing get troubles. If the company does not do well to perform dependability, the delivery is always late, therefore the company itself will lose the goodwill of customers. As a milk company, Vinamilk considers quality is the top target, therefore, its processes have been designed as a error-free process in which some unpredictable errors that may affects the quality of finished products will be minimized. Vinamilk is one of the companies that apply the HACCP approach in manufacturing process. The HACCP approach is a scientific system for food safety assurance (Nguyen et al.,2004). Its main purpose is to provide a system whereby food businesses can control quality and safety throughout the entire food operation.(Applying quality function deployment in food safety manage ment, British Food Journal Vol. 112 No. 6, 2010 pp. 624-639). ( Source: Slack et al.2007) Figure 1.2 Polar diagram for Vinamilk 3.0 Process design The whole point of process design is to make sure that the performance of the process is appropriate for what the operation is trying to achieve(Slack et al,2007). Therefore, it can be said that operations process design is an translation of performance objectives. A question here is What type of process design currently adopted in Vinamilk? Generally, the basic process for all products in Vinamilk is the same. Raw materials are tested, processed, contained, then containers are filled, capped, labelled and packed. Inspections are carried out at appropriate stages.Therefore, an idea to adopt batch process can be given. In a batch environment, the basic machinery is fixed in place, but it is used on different batches of different products( Rowbotham et al,2009). For instance, raw milk and other main raw materials all need to pump into the preventation silo from which the milk will undergo the sterilization process. ( In this example, sterilizing machine is fixed machine, it can be used to sterilizing say, a batch of whatever yohurt, freshmilk or powered milk. After sterilizing, raw milk is undergone four more processes such as homogenising, spliting a certain amount of butter from milk, final processing and packaging. Some appropriate adjustment of parameters can be carried out in order to produce different type of products. Like for whole milk products and low fat products, butter will be added until it reaches the level of fat at 3.25 percent and 1 percent, respectively in the processing. Read phonetically However, because of the high volume characteristic of output resources, the production processes have been conducted repetitive, thus, it could be said that the whole manufacturing process of Vinamilk is also a mass process. Basically, flowlines are inflexible because of the design just allows to produce a particular product at a particular rate of output. Therefore, if demand for the product changes, capacity cannot be easily increased and reducing output simply reduces utilization and may result in very little cost saving. An idea of the process design that mixed between batch process and mass process applied in Vinamilk is called group technology will overcome drawbacks of batch and mass process individually. Group Technology (GT) is the analysis and comparisons of items to group them into families with similar characteristics (Kumar Suresh, 2009).Rowbotham et al., 2007 has the explanation of group technology as belows: Group technology can be seen as an attempt to obtain some of the cost benefits of flowlines in a batch environment.A company manufacturing 200 different products will often find that these products fall into families based upon their manufacturing characteristics, and a group of perhaps ten products could require very similar processing in terms of machinery, process sequence and operation times. While the demand for each product individually will not be great enough to justify dedicated plant and labour, the output for the whole group may be great enough to justify setting up dedicated facilities. The group technology organization rarely leads to fully fledged flowlines and is more likely to lead to small manufacturing cells containing the necessary plant and labour for that group of products. Set-up and control are easier and transport is reduced compared with batch operations. Compared with both batch and flow operations, workers can see the context of their work within the overal l scheme since group technology cells are usually small enough so that all process stages are visible from every point. The process design is expressed through layout which is simply understood as the physical arrangement of production facilities used in production. The basic aim of a group technology layout is to identify families of components that require similar of satisfying all the requirements of the machines are grouped into cells. (Kumar Suresh, 2009). Vinamilk could consider a group technology organization based upon the five groups of products identified: Group of powdered milk and infant cereals Group of condensed milk Group of liquid milk Group of yogurt, ice-cream and cheeses Group of fruit juice, soy-bean milk, purified water It means that five cells layout are designed and each of them is capable of satisfying all the requirements of the component family assigned to it. In another word, all the components assigned to a cell are almost processed within that cell itself. Like the cell of powdered milk and infant cereals has the process line which comprises sterilizing, drying, additional micronutrients, mix, containing and packaging process. The cost of transportation and equipments are minimized in group technology layout. Furthermore, group technology is help to reduces production planning time for jobs as well as set-up time. 4.0 Conclusion In conclusion, this report gives an illustration of how important operations management has contributed to the success of Vinamilk in Vietnam market. First, Vinamilk understands what is important for its customers includes: high quality, stable cost, a wide range of products and reliable delivery. Seconds, the way it produces and delievers its products is right for the market. Thereby Vinamilk can indentify the order- winning and qualifying objectives is price and quality, range of products, respectively. The internal performance objectives are also determined as cost, quality and speed. 5.0 Recommendation At the present time, the manufacturing process of Vinamilk is being proceed well which is reflected in the ways Vinamilk have applied the lastest technology in manufacturing and packaging for all factories. Vinamilk is also the only company in Vietnam which possesses the system of machines that uses the eject-deciccation technology by Niro Denmmark, a world leading company in industrial desiccation technology. The company should maintain and promote the results achieved in the future

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

History And Organisational Examination Of Nestle Corporation

History And Organisational Examination Of Nestle Corporation Nestle is a multinational company with its worldwide operations in over 84 countries. Nestle is the worlds largest food company with its international headquarters at Vevey, Switzerland. Nestle has almost 500 factories world wide out of which 220 are located in Europe, 150 in America and 130 in Africa, Asia and Oceania. It employs almost 2,30,000 people.   Founder of Nestle was German born Henry Nestle who was living in a small town of Switzerland named Vevey. From a modest beginning he founded the company in 1866 at Switzerland for manufacturing milk powders for babies. Necessity is mother of invention is applicable in the  Ã‚   invention of a special food product Farine Lactee made from Cereals milk to saved the lives of many infants because, at that time Switzerland faced one of the highest infant mortality rate the milk formula act as nectar that saved the lives of many infants whose mothers were un-able to breast feed successfully. Since than Company have always looked forward and have achieved set targets goals.   At present Nestle is the worlds largest food company, with its international head quarters at Vevey, in Switzerland. Nestlà © is often quoted by most as Multinational of Multinationals. There is a good reason, as less than 2% of the turnover comes from domestic market in Switzerland.   Nestlà ©Ã‚  is very much decentralized in its operations most of the markets are given considerable autonomy in its operation. It is more of a people products oriented company rather than systems oriented company. There are unwritten guidelines which are to be followed, based on common senses a strong set of moral principals emphasizing a lot of respect for fellow beings. Nestle has always adapted to the local conditions and at the same time integrates its Swiss heritage. It has always taken a long-term view in the countries in which it operates. Therefore, one can see a lot of investment RD and risk taken in new product areas. There is a great emphasis placed on training by the company. It believes in rewarding and promoting people from within. Today its product brand name Nestle is associated with quality products in worldwide consumer markets. The Nest  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When Henry Nestle introduced the first commercial infant formula in 1867, he also created a symbol of the Birds Nest, graphic translation of his name, which personifies the companys business. The symbol, which is universally understood, evokes security, motherhood and affection, nature and nourishment, family and tradition. Today it is the central element of Nestlà ©s corporate identity and closely parallels the companys corporate values and culture. Main point Worlds leading nutrition, health and wellness company. Founded in 1866 in Vevey, Switzerland. It has around 280,000 employees all over the world. It owns 450 factories in 84 countries. Product categories include Soluble Coffee, Infant Nutrition, Bottled Water, Condensed and Evaporated milk, Ice Cream, Chocolate and Malt drinks. VISION Nestlà ©s aim is to meet the various needs of the consumer everyday by marketing and selling foods of a consistently high quality. MISSION We strive to bring consumers foods that are safe, of high quality and provide optimal nutrient to meet physiological needs. Nestle helps provide selections for all individual taste and lifestyle preferences HR at NESTLE NESTLES SPIRIT Making Big Investments in People Believes in building Leaders of Tomorrow CORE VALUE A prerequisite for dealing with people is respect and trust. Transparency and honesty in dealing with people are necessary for efficient communication. This is complemented by open dialogue with the purpose of sharing competencies and boosting creativity. To communicate is not only to inform; it is also to listen and to engage in dialogue. The willingness to cooperate, to help others and to learn is a required basis for advancement and promotion within the company. Human Resource Policies Designed in alignment to the Business Objectives. Incorporates practices like Job Enlargement as well as Job Enrichment. It follows mainly three different policies:- Nestle management leadership principles Nestle human resources policy Nestle people development review Nestlà ©s Culture Commitment to a strong work ethic, integrity, honesty and quality. Personal relations based on trust and mutual respect.. A personalized and direct way of dealing with each other. Openness and curiosity for dynamic and future trends in technology, changes in consumer habits, new business ideas and opportunities, while maintaining respect for basic human values, attitudes and behavior. HR Practices Recruitment Training Performance Management Rewards and Incentives Employee Relations Change Management Training Literacy training- to upgrades essential literacy skills, especially for workers who operate new equipment Local Training Programs- on issues ranging from technical, leadership, and communication and business economics. Performance Management Transparent performance appraisal system It has the following characteristics:- Recruitment Formal assessment by Line Managers and HR once in a year with feedback. Subordinate can question an unfair evaluation. Specific Key Performance Indicators have been enlisted by the HR department. Key performance indicator:-Achievement following the Nestle management and leadership principles. Remuneration structure and promotion criteria take into account individual performance. People with realism, hard work, honesty and trustworthiness are looked for. Match between candidates values companys culture are recruited. Recruitment for management levels take place in the head office by top management and all others at the branch level. The existing employees are promoted to higher posts as per the requirements. There are no lateral recruitments. Another source of recruitment is campus placements and human resource consultancies to look for the enthusiastic, motivated and fresh pool of talent. Decision to hire a candidate is finally taken by HR professionals only and no preference is given to external consultant. This is done to finally have the discretion power in the hands of Company. Employee Relation Employee turnover is less than 5%., which is considered to be very low for a multinational corporation. Nestle has an open culture upward communication especially in case of grievance redressal is encouraged. Work/Life balance is given importance, as illustrated in the Nestle Human Resource Policy document. Nestle Family annual events are organized by their HR department whereby employees along with their families are invited. Emphasis is laid on safety of employees REWARDS INCENTIVES Passion to Win Awards Long-service Awards Nestle Idea Award Talent Management:- To develop the framework and processes which will enable the company to identify and develop the potential of employees at Nestle.   Learning and development:- Continuous Improvement Creativity and Innovation Changing Role of HR Motivate and to develop people. Develop open-mindedness as well as a high level of interest in other cultures and life-styles. create a climate of innovation HR professionals should be able to inculcate the willingness to accept change and the ability to manage it. International experience and understanding of other cultures will prepare the employees to face the challenges in global markets. The aim of the Human Resources Strategy is to support staff. This it will do by developing and promoting good HR practice for the recruitment and development of high quality staff, by effectively managing their performance and by providing appropriate rewards and flexible opportunities that allow individuals to manage their own development. Core Functions of International Human Resources In Nestle Recruitment Selection Process Expatriates Performance Appraisal Training and Development Compensation Sources of Recruitment There are many different types of interviews. Once you are selected for an interview, you may experience one or more of the situations described below. When you schedule an interview, try to get as much information about whom you will be meeting. It is rare to have only one interview prior to a job offer. Most employers will bring back a candidate a number of times to be sure a potential employee will fit into the company culture. MODERN TECHNIQUES AND SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT FOR GLOBAL COMPANIES LIKE NESTLE 1) Walk-In -: The busy global organizations and the rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore they advise the candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place. 2) Consult-In -: The busy and dynamic global companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The international companies select the suitable candidates from among such candidates though the selection process. 3) Head-Hunting -: The global companies request the professional organizations to search for the best candidates particularly for the senior executive positions. The professional organizations search for the most suitable candidates and advice the global company regarding the filling up of the positions. 4) Body-Shopping -: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training institutes develop the pool of human resources for possible employment. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. The body shoppers appoint people for their organization and provide the required/specific employees to various organizations on request. In fact, body shoppers collect fee/commission from the organizations and pay the salary/benefits to the employees. 5) Business Alliance -: It is like acquisitions, mergers, and takeovers help in getting human resources. In addition, the companies do also have alliances in sharing their human resources on ad-hoc basis. 6) Tele-Recruitment -: The technological revolutions in telecommunication helped the organizations to use internet as source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies though the World Wide Web internet. The job seekers send their application though e-mails or internet websites. CASE STUDY ON NESTLE: UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES Nestle was one of the biggest purchasers of cocoa from the Ivory Coast, a country in West Africa. Most of the worlds cocoa production came from farms and plantations located in Ivory Coast. Studies conducted by some of the major welfare organizations in the world like the International Labor Organization, UNICEF and other independent agencies revealed that the workers on these plantations lived and worked in poor conditions. They were paid minimal wages and exploited by the land-owners. Most of the workers had been trafficked i.e. bought and sold, making them practically slave labor. Nestle purchased cocoa from these farms despite its awareness of the conditions of the laborers, thus becoming it a party to their exploitation. Child labor was also employed on the plantations. UNICEF studies revealed that over 200,000 children were shipped to Ivory Coast and other cocoa producing countries in Western Africa from neighboring countries like Mali and Burkina Faso, to work on the plantations, especially during the harvesting of cocoa or coffee beans. The children were sometimes as young as nine years and could not escape from the plantations to return to their homes. A report released by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) also confirmed that child labor was used extensively on plantations in Africa, from where Nestle sourced most of its cocoa. The report which surveyed 1,500 farms in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon found that more than 200,000 children worked in hazardous conditions using machetes and spraying pesticides and insecticides without the necessary protective equipment. The labor was usually supplied to the plantations by labor broker, totally unrelated to the laborer. The workers actually received only a very small proportion of the price paid for the Nestle product by the final consumer. Nestle was aware of the exploitative labor practices used by its suppliers and was also in a position to pressurize them to change, as it was a major buyer. Besides the report of several credible organizations, public interest groups also sent several petitions and representations to Nestle to stop buying bonded labor-tainted cocoa. However, the company chose to ignore these petitions, and continued its purchases of cocoa from these suppliers. Nestle was also involved in union busting in some countries. For instance, when a group of 13 workers, working in a sub-contracting facility of Nestle in Thailand, organized themselves to form a union, Nestle immediately cut the number of orders to that company and asked the company to put the unionized workers on indefinite leave with half pay. The workers were forced to quit, because of their lowered pay. In doing so, Nestle had clearly denied there workers their right to organize themselves to better their interests. Companies like Nestle made a public show of their support to social causes, in order to divert attention from their irresponsible behavior elsewhere. Nestle set up the Nestle Trust to support social issues relating the children and aged. However, some people believed the company was using these social causes for pure promotional purposes Nestle has well laid out charters to govern their social responsibility and behavior, but more often than not, these are only on paper. STRATEGIC HRM VERSUS CONVENTIONAL HRM Traditional HRM Strategic HRM Responsibility of HRM Staff specialists Line managers Focus Employee relations Partnerships with internal and external customers Role of HR Transactional, change follower, and respondent Initiatives Slow, reactive, fragmented Fast, proactive, integrated Time horizon Short term Short, medium, long (as necessary) Control Bureaucratic-roles, policies, procedures Organic-flexible, whatever is necessary to succeed Job Design Tight division of labor, independence, specialization Broad, flexible, whatever is necessary to succeed Key Investment Capital, products People, knowledge Accountability Cost center Investment center

Monday, August 19, 2019

Wireless Area Networks Essay -- Technology Technological Essays

Wireless Area Networks Wireless technology has become an increasingly crucial part of today's world. From health care and retail to academia across the world, wireless systems are improving the rate and ease with which data is sent and received. Two specific examples of the wireless technology used today personally and professionally are local area networks (LAN) and personal area networks (PAN). A wireless local area network, or LAN is a flexible data communications system implemented as an augmentation to, or an alternative for a, wired local area network. These networks rely on electromagnetic airwaves to transmit and receive over a defined area, usually a few hundred feet. (Yahoo-wireless) In most cases, a wireless transmitter will be connected directly to a wired land network using Ethernet cables. Once the network feed has been connected to the transmitter, and a constant power supply is established, a steady stream of radio, or infrared waves with be produced (both are electromagnetic waves). The vast majority of wireless LAN systems tend to rely on radio waves as the carries for their signals, because infrared waves tend to have a shorter distance at which they are able to transmit, and are more easily interrupted. Radio waves, or radio carriers as they are referred to, transfer data through modulations of the carrier signal. The addition of d ata to a radio carrier causes the signal to occupy more than a single frequency. Once data is imprinted onto the radio signal it is a simple reversal of the transmitting process that allows the information to be decoded by a receiving station. (Rho Wireless) Radio waves offer another benefit to the wireless system in... ...ta instantaneous and without the hindrance of cables. Whether or not wireless systems are practical or necessary in a given situation is a matter of personal opinion. However, one cannot dispute the success these systems have had in numerous professional and personal areas and it is very likely that usage of LAN and PAN wireless systems will increase dramatically in the near future as technology continues to advance and evolve. Bibliography Rho Wireless. Wireless Local Area Networks. Oct. 20, 2003. Oct. 25, 2003. Bluetooth Corporation. Bluetooth. 2003. Oct. 20, 2003. Yahoo Wireless. Wireless LAN. 2003. Oct. 20, 2003. Home Networking Internet Sharing. Home help-802.11b. 2001. Oct. 22, 2003. Wireless Area Networks Essay -- Technology Technological Essays Wireless Area Networks Wireless technology has become an increasingly crucial part of today's world. From health care and retail to academia across the world, wireless systems are improving the rate and ease with which data is sent and received. Two specific examples of the wireless technology used today personally and professionally are local area networks (LAN) and personal area networks (PAN). A wireless local area network, or LAN is a flexible data communications system implemented as an augmentation to, or an alternative for a, wired local area network. These networks rely on electromagnetic airwaves to transmit and receive over a defined area, usually a few hundred feet. (Yahoo-wireless) In most cases, a wireless transmitter will be connected directly to a wired land network using Ethernet cables. Once the network feed has been connected to the transmitter, and a constant power supply is established, a steady stream of radio, or infrared waves with be produced (both are electromagnetic waves). The vast majority of wireless LAN systems tend to rely on radio waves as the carries for their signals, because infrared waves tend to have a shorter distance at which they are able to transmit, and are more easily interrupted. Radio waves, or radio carriers as they are referred to, transfer data through modulations of the carrier signal. The addition of d ata to a radio carrier causes the signal to occupy more than a single frequency. Once data is imprinted onto the radio signal it is a simple reversal of the transmitting process that allows the information to be decoded by a receiving station. (Rho Wireless) Radio waves offer another benefit to the wireless system in... ...ta instantaneous and without the hindrance of cables. Whether or not wireless systems are practical or necessary in a given situation is a matter of personal opinion. However, one cannot dispute the success these systems have had in numerous professional and personal areas and it is very likely that usage of LAN and PAN wireless systems will increase dramatically in the near future as technology continues to advance and evolve. Bibliography Rho Wireless. Wireless Local Area Networks. Oct. 20, 2003. Oct. 25, 2003. Bluetooth Corporation. Bluetooth. 2003. Oct. 20, 2003. Yahoo Wireless. Wireless LAN. 2003. Oct. 20, 2003. Home Networking Internet Sharing. Home help-802.11b. 2001. Oct. 22, 2003.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

My Hero Essay example -- Hero Heroes Personal Essays

My Hero What is a hero? In my view a hero is someone that you admire. You may admirer them for their achievements, outlooks in life or maybe just because they are famous. In this case I admire my hero for his courage and his determination all through his personal life and his career. This story begins in Bellshill near Glasgow 24th September 1962 where a Glaswegian boy was born. His parents Alexander and May called their miracle Alistair Murdoch McCoist. If only his parents had known the difference this baby boy would make to Scottish football in years to come. At the age of 16 Ally left His High School Hunter high to take up a career in football after his chemistry teacher Archie Robertson noticed him and took him to the St Johnstone Boys Club trials. Unfortunately Mr Robertson died and did not see ally make it to the professional football stage in his career. This is one of Ally's biggest regrets in life. On the 1st December 1978 Ally started his career at St Johnstone FC from their Boys Club. During his first season he appears on the pitch 4 times, though he fails to score a goal but how it changed in the later stages of his football career. Then in 1981 he was transferred to Sunderland for two seasons but still gets no motivation. During his time playing for Sunderland he marries a girl named Allison who to this day is still his wife. Finally in 1983 after three attempts Ally's dream finally comes true when John Greig buys him for  £200,000 and is transferred to Rangers FC almost immediately. This is just the beginning of the success story of Ally Mc Coist. In the early years of his career wearing a number 9 shirt on his back at his new club he is not a popular player with the fans at all.... ... is for Scotland to win the World Cup but he accepts this will never happen, as it would help if they qualified first. He would also like to see one of his boys follow in their "daddy's" footsteps and become a professional footballer. Some general information about my hero is that his perfect happiness would be a Sunday lunch with his family. His greatest fear is his son Argylle. His idol is Robert the Bruce and he admires his son Mitchell the most. Finally his happiest time is when he is on a football pitch kicking a ball around. Overall I chose Alistair Mc Coist as my hero because I admire him for his determination throughout his career as a footballer and also the trials in his personal life that he has overcome including him having the will to save his marriage. Everyday life for me is meeting my hero at the shops and I feel privileged to do so.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Jade Peony

Belonging When someone is said to be Canadian, it does not just mean being one who lives on this land, or has lived on this land long enough to obtain this citizenship, it means living the Canadian life, it means waking up in the morning wearing a ton of layers and going outside in the freezing cold to do whatever a person needs to do during the day, to be Canadian it also means to belong. Canada is known for the diversity of culture, religion, color, and beliefs, as well as our ability to be able to create a status acceptable to everyone, making Canada, despite our individual diversity and differences, to be united as one. However, what we don’t realize is that Canada has not always been this way; this is the perspective that Wayson Choy expresses through his novel â€Å"The Jade Peony†. His text and word play emphasizes on a world so unknown, yet so important to not only our history, but to our understanding of what our ancestors of our various ethnic origins fought through every day of their lives to create the world in which every day we take for granted. Where he lays his emphasis on our history is not from the point of view of the adult, but through the eyes of the children who, today, are our fathers and grandfathers. Divided into three major chapters, Wayson Choy begins the narration of his history through the eyes of Jook-Laing, a five year old beautiful girl of Chinese origin born in Canada after her family immigrated to Canada. Isolation is slowly starting to become a major theme in the novel, not only created by the Canadian Government, but by her very own family. The Canadian Government in the 1940's, the time period the novel takes place, created harsh laws against immigrants, making it near impossible to live happily: one was never to leave the household, as immigrants must live within the same household even when one becomes married, as well as harsh laws on illness, where, if one were to become sick with any illness- even as innocent as a cold- if the government found out, â€Å"The Vancouver Health Inspection Board†¦ posted on our front door, a sign boldly visible from the street: condemned† (p. 32). However, Jook-Laing's family's old heritage and Chinese beliefs create the deepest isolation as they shun the idea of traditional Canadian society, where Poh-Poh, elder and Jook-Laing's Grandmother, describes this life as â€Å"poison to young China girl-child† (p. 17). Jook-Laing's young and highly dream-filled spirit inspires her to dream of the perfect world- a perfect world she never gives up on as play and her â€Å"movie-star daydreams† (p. 37) have caused her heart to grow and know that, deep, inside, Canada is a better place than China, no matter what Poh-Poh says to her about her heritage. However, despite her strong instinct, conflict arises as person versus person/society is introduced when her powerful instinct and her Grandmother's words â€Å"You not Canada. You never Canada. You China. Always war in China† (p. 37) make her isolated from becoming her own person and trapping her in a world she knows is not true to her heart. As a major authority figure of the household, Poh-Poh is never corrected or disagreed with, causing Jook-Laing to feel alone in her internal battle between what she is told and her faith in Canada. Further, Jook-Laing, along with her other two step-brothers, are strongly looked down upon by their strict, old heritage grandmother, who constantly reminds them of her feelings towards them: â€Å"This useless only-granddaughter wants to be Shirlee Tem-po-lah; the useless Second Grandson wants to be cow-boy-lah. The First Grandson wants to be Charlie Chan. All stupid foolish! † (p. 40). With Poh-Poh's interrogance towards her grandchildren's play, it creates further isolation from the norm of society and themselves, along with isolation from their desire to be a child. Despite her Grandmother beginning to shape the role of the antagonist of the story, Jook-Laing makes a deep connection with an old family friend, Mau-lauh Bak, who not only understands the importance of play, but embraces and cherishes Jook-Laing for her ability to be free in a world so sour towards them. that connects Jook-Laing to the theme of belonging. The second part of the story speaks about Jung-Sum, the kid who was adopted due to the fact that his parents have died from a young age â€Å"I TAKE CARE OF MY SELF’ (p. 2). Jung also starts off in the novel isolation for as he doesn’t want his new family to take care of him. But Jung started to box and that is where he found a sense of belonging. Sek- Lung also fell into the same isolation theme from Canada and as well from his family, he was in belief that Poh-Poh was still coming to visit after she had died, and the whole family did not believe the fact, that’s when Sekky fell into the same pattern of isola tion. But it was Sekky that had the most sense of belonging to Canada towards the end of the book, because Canada is a multicultural community there is all kinds of races that live in this great country, and Sekky was a big hater of the Japanese â€Å"I have to remember they are the enemy† (p. 189) but when he meets Meiying, and she introduces him to Kaz her Japanese boyfriend, he gets to like him. This shows that the world revolves around hate but once you get to know people, a person’s perspective might change. Sekky finally found his belonging in Canada.