Monday, September 30, 2019
Foodborne Illness Short Answer Questions Staphylococcus Ã¢â¬ ¢What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? The pathogen that causes Staphylococcus is called Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is also called Staph and is abbreviated to S. aureus or Staph aureus in medical literature. S. aureus is a bacterium that causes various infections. Staph is a commonly found on the skin and also in mucus membranes (mostly the nose and throat) of up to 25% of healthy people and animals. Depending on the type of strain S. ureus, can cause minor skin infections such as pimples, boils, carbuncles, and abscesses or life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. (Microbiology, 2005) Some strains produce an enterotoxin that causes staphylococcus aureus gastroenteritis, also known as food poisoning. The most harmful species of S. aureus is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); this bacterium has de veloped antibiotic resistance. (Microbiology, 2005) Each year, approximately half a million people are admitted to a hospital in the U. S. ue to a staphylococcal infection. Ã¢â¬ ¢How is this infectious agent transmitted through food or water? S. aureus is not necessarily transmitted through food or water but primarily through direct person-to-person contact. It is also possible to transmit through indirect contact (i. e. contaminated environmental surfaces). Staph infections are common hospital-acquired infections due to the possibility of health care providers being carriers of this, usually harmless, bacteria. A carrier of S. aureus can easily contaminate their own hands by contact with their nose in the course of routine activities. Skin to skin contact is the most significant mode of transmitting the pathogen and hand washing can significantly reduce transmission. Staph infections can spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, contact with objects such as towels, sheets, or clothing. (Wiki, 2012) S. aureus can remain living for long periods of time on linen, clothing and dust. Ã¢â¬ ¢What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States? I found this example of a real life outbreak, although it is not in the US, I found it astonishing that the outbreak ended with proper hygiene. In January 2008, a cluster of neonates with bullous impetigo in a hospital of northern Thailand was investigated. Medical records and working timetables of healthcare workers (HCWs) were reviewed. During an environmental study, bacteriological samples from HCWs and equipments were taken. The study resulted in 16 confirmed cases and 14 probable cases. The attack rate was 42%. Most cases had skin blisters (28 cases) followed by pustules (five cases) and exfoliation (three cases). The location of the lesion was the trunk (17 cases), neck (14 cases) or armpits (nine cases). Nineteen cases had symptoms onset after discharge from hospital. Median age at onset was 4 days. The strain isolated from an infected newborn shared the same phage type as the contaminated equipment. Insufficient hand hygiene was an observed risk behavior of HCWs and visitors. Exposure to a nasal carrier of Staphylococcus aureus and ward sharing with a symptomatic case increased the risk of acquiring the infection. The outbreak ended abruptly after implementation of hand hygiene practices and equipment cleaning. (Eurosurveillance, 2008) What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any? The clinical symptoms of a skin staph infection are boils and puss-filled accesses. These areas of the infection are commonly red, swollen and painful. Drainage of the infections is common practice. When S aureus enters the blood stream it can spread to organs and cause serious infections, this is known as bacteremia or sepsis. Patients with underlying lung disease may deve lop staphylococcus pneumonia which causes an abscess formation in the ungs. Infection of the heart valves, also called endocarditis, can lead to heart failure. Staphylococcal food poisoning causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. (MedicineNet, n. d. ) Minor skin infections may be treated with an antibiotic ointment or oral antibiotics. Serious and life-threatening illness may be treated with intravenous antibiotics depending on the particular staphylococcal strain. Some strains, such as MRSA, are resistant to many antibiotics. Ã¢â¬ ¢What steps can be taken to prevent further outbreaks? Include individual as well as environmental precautions and methods. There is not a vaccine available against Staphylococcus aureus since bacteria are so widespread. But there are common hygiene practices that can reduce the risk of developing staph infections. Thoroughly washing hands is the best defense against germs. If you have a cut or wound, keep it clean and covered with sterile bandages until they heal completely. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, sheets, razors and clothing. Women that use tampons can reduce their risk by changing tampons frequently. Hospitals can reduce transmission of staphylococcal aureus and MRSA by ensuring proper hygiene is a priority with all healthcare workers. They can also disinfect surfaces that are handled by healthcare workers, patients and visitors daily. A study was done to test the growth rate of staphylococci on stainless steel and brass. The results of this study showed the growth of the bacteria to be lower on the brass covered hardware. This could be a change hospitals can make to help reduce the spread of staphylococcus. Noyce, Michels, & Keevil, 2006, p. 290) Reference: Microbiology. (2005, May 25). What Is Staphylococcus Aureus? Bionewsonline. com Retrieved January 21, 2012, from http://www. bionewsonline. com/i/what_is_staphylococcus_aureus. htm Wikipedia. (2012, January 17). Staphylococcus Aureus. Wikipedia. org Retrieved January 21, 2012, form http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Staphylococcus_aureus Eurosurveillance. (January 2008). An outbreak of hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus skin infection among newborns, Nan Province, Thailand, January 2008. EuroSurveillance. org. Retrieved January 21, 2012, from http://www. eurosurveillance. org/ViewArticle. aspx? ArticleId=19372 MedicineNet. (n. d. ). Staph Infection. MedicineNet. com. Retrieved on January 21, 2012 from http://www. medicinenet. com/staph_infection/article. htm#symptoms J. O. Noyce, H. Michels, & C. W. Keevil. (2006). Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment. [Electronic Version]. Journal of Hospital Infection, 63, 289-297
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Journal 1 I think Ã¢â¬Å"Good Day SunshineÃ¢â¬ is the poem that I can identify most because this is the poem the author shows his happiness and excitement for get a new girlfriend. The meaning I draw from this song is that a man fell in love with his new girlfriend, referred to in the song Ã¢â¬Å"I feel good in a special way, IÃ¢â¬â¢m in love and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a sunny dayÃ¢â¬ . We can also think the special day is the day that the author fall in love, although actually is a normal day, for the author is sunny and special. There is a poetic devices is used in this poemÃ¢â¬ârhyme. It can make the readers much better to feel the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling. Although this is a simple and easy understanding poem, the rhyme and the feeling inside that the readers may love it. Q: What is the image you get when you read this poem? Journal 2 For today journals, both of them are difficult for me to understand. Nevertheless, I can still draw something from the poem King Of Pain. In this poem, we can see that the author was under a great painful form Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a little black spot on the sun today, the same old thing as yesterday, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a black hat caught in a high tree topÃ¢â¬ . Because the author was under a great painful, everything in his eyes is black, old and shabby. Also, from the words Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s my soul up thereÃ¢â¬ , it told us that the author felt bad as the black old thing, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also mean that the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s soul is out of his body. In this poem, we can easy to find couples of poetic devices in it. There are catharsis, similes and personifications. These poetic devices make this poem have a stronger feeling and let the reader much easier to understand. Q: What is the image you get when you read this poem? Journal 3 For today poems, actually all are not difficult to understand, they have seldom writing skills and poetic devices, like the poem TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Diner. This poem not only a poem, but also the words of song. In this song you can easy understand that the author feel in love in the person who the author love so much, but the author feel shy and never to tell the person, so the author wrote this poem like telling a story to the readers. However, we readers can draw that the author had not shown the love to the one the author love at the end of the poem. I think this is a sad ending. For the poetic devices of this poem, I think we can name it telling stories. Q: Is the author a man or a woman? Journal 4 This is the most strange love poem that I have ever met. For the name of poem-My Mistresses Eyes. I think this is not the true mistress of the author, only the author loves this woman so much and treats her as a mistress. And now let us have a look to this poem, the author said Ã¢â¬Å"My mistressÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lipsÃ¢â¬â¢ red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her headÃ¢â¬ . All of them are saying that his mistress is not beautiful, nice and even ugly. But this is a love poem, not a satire poem, how can the author wrote this in a love poem? As far as I am concerned, the author wrote this that mean he do not care how many bad qualities the woman had. We always say if you love a person, all bad things will become good. In this poem, we can see that metaphor and imagery were used in it. These poetic devices make this poem has a stronger feeling and let the readers much easier to understand. Q: What is the image of the woman you get when you read this poem? Journal 5 Vegetarians, obviously this poem is about a group of people who only eat vegetables and maybe also about their food. Then when you read this poem you will find my hypothesis is correct. The author wrote this poem not only describe the vegetarians and different kind of vegetables, but also want more people to understand what is vegetarian. This poem begins with Ã¢â¬Å"Vegetarians are cruel, unthinking people. Everybody knows that a carrot screams when gratedÃ¢â¬ . Made the vegetables look like human being, describes the thing when vegetables were eaten. I think this author must love meat so much. There are two poetic devices in this poem, one is personification and the other one is imagery. These poetic devices make this poem has a stronger feeling and let the readers much easier to understand. Journal 6 All today poems are social commentary again, difficult part for me. As far as I am concerned, the strange fruit in this poem mean black people. So this poem tells us how the black people be treated in the past, the white people treated black people liked animals, not human beings. Ã¢â¬Å"Southern trees bear a strange fruit, blood one the leaves and blood at the root, black bodies swinging in the southern breeze, strange fruit hanging from the poplar treesÃ¢â¬ . Strange fruit just like black people, black people just like strange fruit, both of them were hung on the trees. This also mean white people treated black people as object, not human beings. For the poetic devices in this poem, it has personification and metaphor. These poetic devices make the readers much easier to understand how white people treated black people in the past.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Banning Catcher in the Rye Essay The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger should not be banned in schools based solely on the fact that it is a controversial book that uses harsh language and sexual references. This book is J. D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of speech, and it is a violation of the first amendment for schools to ban this book. This book is only offering an inside look into what teenagers go through in some point of their lives. According to the Los Angeles Times, The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ profanity and sexual references drew scandalized reactionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Rotella 18). Although this book has many sexual references, it is not in any way as explicit and as bad as what teenagers see and hear nowadays on television and in the world. Holden occasionally thinks and talks about sex: Ã¢â¬Å"Most guys at Pencey talked about having sexual intercourse with girls all the time. Ã¢â¬ (Salinger 48). The average teenager often thinks and talks about sex. It is not unusual for teenagers to do this. The profanity in this book is also not as bad as it may seem. Patty Salazar, a concerned mother and religious activist, claims that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËIt uses the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s name in vain 200 timesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Rotella 17), but the curse words used in The Catcher in the Rye are nothing that teenagers have not heard before in their everyday lives. Banning The Catcher in the Rye in school is not acceptable. It is a violation of the first amendment, and it is nothing far from what teenagers encounter everyday. This book gives teenagers someone in literature that they are able to relate to in one way or another. The Catcher in the Rye is not a book that will corrupt young readers. The underlying theme of this book is loss of innocence. This loss occurs when a teenager makes the change to adulthood where he or she is obscured by phoniness. By banning this book from schools, the only thing that teenagers would be sheltered from is reality. Banning Catcher in the Rye. (2016, Oct 02).
Friday, September 27, 2019
Analysis of the music video Destiny's Child - Cater 2 U - Essay Example The song, Cater 2 U, has a general gendered meaning; that men will enjoy the rewards of love and compassion following a point where their female lovers notice that they are working hard. The music video casts feminine figures whose romantic actions could create an impression to the hard working man. In addition, it acts as a clear depiction of the level to which a hardworking man inspires his female companion (Sfetcu 16). When a woman notices the hardworking nature of her male lover, she will gain inspiration to make such a man happy and thus, want to accommodate him in a great way. In this perspective, a woman's submission to a man would be best when the man deserves it and thus, gives it back; a hardworking man furnishes her woman and gets back all the lovely accommodation. Form The text's enhanced application of formal techniques allows it to reinforce the overall meaning. The music video's shooting took place at a desert, which depicts a decision by the trio to go natural, which makes the video more authentic. The desert scenery, as well as the exquisiteness of the trio mainly enhances the clip. However, the presence of male actors seems to be superfluous to the music video's scene of female pleasures and bodies. However, the enriching nature of the feminine shooting acts as a balancing factor, which helps in driving the theme that the male actors depict to the audience. The natural lighting of the music video's shooting period helps in showing the natural feminine look of the females in the music video.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
An evaluation of the claim that Rousseau's Social Contract sacrifices the individual to the collective - Essay Example The will of the public is represented though democratic procedures in society. While most interest converge to reflect the overarching consensus within society, there are bound to be some marginalized opinions. This means that society has to develop a means of arbitrating between what is right and wrong. Rousseau developed a simple calculus for making this decision. He uses the general will to evaluate whether the upholding the individuals rights is good for society as a collective entity. In this paper after providing background information on the nature of humanity, I describe the social contract and the role of government. Next, we explore the philosophical framework that surrounds the rights that individuals have in society. Before concluding, I discuss the General Will and determine whether its meant to sacrifice the individual for the collective. II. Background Rousseau exclaimed that the state of nature existed without the rule of law or a system of morality. In this state hum ans banned together for the benefits and necessity of cooperation. As society became increasingly developed, the perpetual division of labor and the extension of private property demanded the totality of the human race to adopt governing institutions of law. This structure of society forces individuals to be increasingly interdependent whereby on one hand, they continue competition while on the other hand, they require each other. Rousseau theorized that by joining together into a civil society through the social contract surrendering their natural rights, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. Specifically, because the submission to the authority of the general will guarantees individuals protection against being subordinated to the wills of others and ensures that they obey the collective because they are, holistically, the authors of the law. This is where the general will becomes and important aspect of RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of the social contract. But all of this analysis started from an initial concept of human nature as naturally selfish. Lets discuss the psychological and sociological structure of society. If Humans are psychologically different, then it is easier to justify differential treatment of others. But if we are psychological alike, then one will find much more difficulty vindicating such claims. Hence my task with the analysis I provide you here, will be to prove that humans are psychologically alike as well as provide a clear definition for our psychological existence. Traditional conceptions of the psychological definition of humanity came from two different schools of thought. Either humans are naturally good, or they are naturally bad. I would argue that neither is correct and that humans are a blank slate, but letÃ¢â¬â¢s tackle the traditional conceptions first. First, Humans are naturally good. This belief is most notably held by the famous philosophical thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau. In The Inequality among Men Ã¢â¬Å"So many authors have hastily concluded that man is naturally cruel, and requires a regular system of police to be reclaimed; whereas nothing can be more gentle than he in his primitive state, when placed by nature at an equal distance from the stupidity of brutes, and the pernicious good sense of civilized man; and equally confined by instinct and reason to the care of providing against the mischief which threatens him, he is withheld by natural compassion from doing any injury to others, so far from
Kouros - Essay Example This is because of the fact that Kouros statues usually exhibit a supreme form of geometric symmetry, reminding us of the realism and naturalism of the ever famous artworks of the Renaissance Era later in the history of Europe, from which the artworks from this period of Greece became an inspiration. From the measures of the eyes and the face, to the muscles of the body, it can be seen that almost all of the components are very proportionate and exact with regards to the symmetries of the body of a real male youth. In addition to this, most of the Kouros statues usually pose in a certain form: a standing pose with Ã¢â¬Å"their left leg moved forward, their arms close to their bodies touching the side of their thighs...Ã¢â¬ all depicted Ã¢â¬Å"as simple geometric formsÃ¢â¬ (Ancient-Greece.org n. p.). One of the main references for the artists to gain symmetry in creating Kouros without utilizing a rigid measurement system was through appropriating proportions in the Kouros using Ã¢â¬Å"heads:Ã¢â¬ in fact, Ã¢â¬Å"several Kouros exhibit the 1:7 head:body proportionsÃ¢â¬ (Ancient-Greece.org n. p.). Works Cited Ancient-Greece.org. Ã¢â¬Å"Kouros.Ã¢â¬ Ancient-Greece.org. Ancient-Greece, n. d. Web. 7 May 2011.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Social and Academic Impacts on Children with Disabilities who are Receiving Inclusion in Schools - Essay Example One of the initiatives of the No Child Left Behind initiative, as well as other educational initiatives that have been mooted in recent times, is to include children with disabilities into integrated classrooms, together with normal children. The Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990 was passed to guarantee equal access to education for children with disabilities. (Motwani, 2007). While the move towards inclusion is a recent trend, the debate on the merits and demerits of educational inclusion have been continuing for decades. This study proposes to undertake a literature review on inclusion in schools and to examine the ramifications of inclusion for disabled children, in order to assess its relative efficacy. This study is purely a literature review and will not support its findings with empirical data gleaned from individual participants. The focus of this research effort is to gain a general idea of the relative merits and demerits of inclusion and its potential or the lack thereof, in affecting the well being and successful integration of disabled students. Since the incidence of disability among students is becoming more widespread, this study is important because it examines one aspect of educational reform that could be effectively used for the benefit of these students, in order to integrate them as productive members of society. The lack of empirical support for this study is one of its limitations. Moreover, this study confines itself to studies that have been carried out after the period of 1996, although some prior material is also examined. The focus of this research effort is on the current findings in the literature and how best it can demonstrate the progress sand efficacy of inclusion. The findings in this study support the conclusion that there is a greater amount of research required into the merits and demerits of inclusion, in terms of ethnographic studies on disabled students. However, the literature review does
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The Pathway to Suicide - Essay Example llenistic era, reflecting a deep pessimism about future and presence of evil and suffering in the near future associated with ultimate divine justice for the sins committed by the mankind. The Apocalyptic revelations goes back to Babylonian and the times of prophets Zachariah, who emphasized divine intervention at the time of trouble and crisis and predicted the arrival of Messiah. These writers demanded strict form of purity and developed their own theology to describe God's power. Apocalyptic writers introduced a different vocabulary into their theology and turned to nature and all its wonders to illustrate God's power (Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2001). The Christ second coming became more demanding in the period of social unrest with rise in many local prophets claiming to the harbingers of new age. Many local prophets have arisen in troubled times predicting a new age, promising their followers utopian dreams, but in reality with their own semi-political goals. For example, the Camisards in the early 19th century in France or the self styles messiah of Monte Amiata South East of Tuscany in late 1860s. The New Religious movements (cults and sects) today have become a worldwide phenomenon, especially after WWII in the West. Majority of these sects manifest he characteristics of prevalent religions, but with complex theories and doctrines diluting the mainstream religion (Zellner, P22, 1998). In 1985 there were 417 sects and 501 cult movements in America alone, raising the figure to 7 million or 3 percent of America total population, while in 1989 the figure rose to 5 percent composing mainly of young people. Since 19th century there have been various Christian cults such as Church of Jesus Christ (1830), Spiritualism in (1848) and Jehovah's Witness (1872) the... Cult members normally join a cult in the time of crisis in a belief that by devoting themselves to the leader they can get freedom from the real world problems. Tragically they put their hopes on a mistaken leader who through his teaching and brainwashing leads his members to death and destruction. The cult practice makes them Ã¢â¬Å"dagger in the hand of leaderÃ¢â¬ that often brings an end to their fate. From the above discussion it is clear that cult members become suicidal due to cults destructive teaching and resort to suicide to achieve the imaginative ideal of the cult for which they are prepared for years. For centuries man have waited for real and imaginary Messiah to deliver peace and happiness and restore order in the chaotic world. The world always had its problems and will have problems; cults will flourish, as long men believe in some external redeemer.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Diversity and Belief - Essay Example The first aspect that Chaves discusses is Ã¢â¬Ëbelief,Ã¢â¬â¢ the current trend towards belief is very different. Few Americans today are not enthusiast on a particular literal reading of the Bible as they did few years ago. And many are opting a diffusion of spirituality. One of the attribute that Chaves has described as the cause of lowering literal bible reading is due to education. Education system has been formulated with a very rigid curriculum that has cast aside the literal bible reading. The weakening in religion can also be attributed to the gradual drop of religious meetings, elderly congregation and less cohesive. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world there is an increase of televangelists who are characterized with unending scandals and other disgraces that have surrounded a church like catholic. Most of the Churches that are likely to suffer this is the congregations that are more liberal, those that are conservatives seems to be affected in a minimal way. Chaves indicated that lo wer membership in liberal churches is not as a result of liberalizing ideas, on the contrary more people are to the opinion of liberal idea. A puzzling question regarding this thought is, are the liberal ideas religious or humanistic? One of the most amazing trend of American religion since 1970s is that conservatism and religiosity are embedded together. This a false sign that most people perceived since they thought that the force of religion was developing which was not the case. Another phenomenon that was perceived as a reason to dictate that religion was growing was the introduction of Mega churches, which focuses on crowds and programs. Many churches are not concerned about religious belief, they want to be perceived as huge churches with numerous followers.it is due to such reason that suggests that religion was developing gives untrue perception since only more people are
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Time immemorial Essay In so many premises, we use and hear the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"from time immemorial Ã¢â¬ This ideas somehow reveals that time is something which gives an event a basis before it can be said it has taken into place. But along with the passage of the so called Ã¢â¬Å"timeÃ¢â¬ many sages have still never ended their different theses about the existence of time. Is time real? Can time exist even when nothing happens? Aristotle who was the very first philosopher to start the quest about time attached time to the movement of Ã¢â¬Å"objectsÃ¢â¬ from before to after. He maintained the time was divisible and infinite and that it was necessary to measure motion. His idea on the existence of time was supported by NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory that time and God really exist and that every physical thing is kept in a container of infinite size and that Ã¢â¬Å"time is something that passes uniformly without regard to whatever happens in the worldÃ¢â¬ . AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s insinuation that Ã¢â¬Å"all is at once in the present and that what is seen now do not exist yet but it must in the future only implies that time is a matter of simultaneity and exist within a space. He asserts that we can say that time is long only because it constitutes successive movements. On the other hand, Einstein purports that time is but a virtual entity, a fourth dimension which cannot be grasped but just experienced. This conception is what Kant also claims, that Ã¢â¬Å"time is only a form of human inner sense that enables us to understand space and objectsÃ¢â¬ and therefore time is not Ã¢â¬Å"real,Ã¢â¬ but only a mental experience that enables us to understand the real world around us. Therefore, time, which is measured by physical time (clock) empirically exists but transcendentally real. Ã¢â¬Å"It is but a human intuition of measuring changes that take place in a certain space. Ã¢â¬ It is something which we experience, for events are within the context of time. Even if something happens or not, still time elapses because it encompasses events and change, from before to after, from past to present, and from the perceived to its realization. Woks Cited: Johnson, Zachary. (Apri 28, 1999). Kant. Retrived May 4, 2008 from http://www.afn.org/~afn31396/Kant_essay.html
Friday, September 20, 2019
Benjamin Zephaniah Was Born In Birmingham English Literature Essay Throughout his collection Zephaniah connects with young people through his use of conversational language and further, introduces a range of topics that can be easily understood by the younger generation. Topics include friends, family, heroes and animals; which arguably has the effect of making poetry fun for young children. Naturally, children tend to enjoy what can be considered as playground jingles and rhymes but despite this can often be intimidated at the idea of poetry. As Talking Turkeys is arguably fun and enjoyable, this as a result helps to stimulate a childs imagination and interest whilst at the same time builds their confidence within poetry. A rather unique feature of Zephaniahs poetry is his use of colloquial language; a good example of this is when he replaces the word there with dere. Further, made up words such as guzzards also add to the humour of the poetry. His poems tend to contain a rather heart-warming moral at the end; Heroes states I say were all heroes if we do our little bit.. This positive message would arguably have a strong impact on the younger readers and encourage them to do well. The structures of Zephaniahs poetry are not complex yet they are rather effective. In Friends the structure is very simple, using four lines to describe each animal in turn, and further using well known characteristics of that particular animal. When talking about a snake he writes I am known to slip and slide. This poem arguably provides visual stimulation and makes the ideas in the poem easily understood for children of a young age. This is reinforced by the inclusion of a wide variety of illustrations. Pictures, designs and photographs are creatively embedded within the poems. The layout of the words in the poem often supports the image. Images consist of collages, pen and ink and photographic studies which add humour and make the poems less daunting to read. In his poem entitled Drivosaurus Rex he uses an image of a T-Rex driving a car which would grab the attention of the young reader. In other poems the illustrations provide the layout of the poem in a fun and imaginative way a llowing for the text to be broken up. Some of his poems within this collection do not reinforce correct grammar and punctuation in that Jamaican Patois is often used. This is rather unconventional, and can be confusing. However, it is also quite charming and clever, and has a tendency to make you want to turn the page and continue reading. There are a range of poems within Talking Turkeys that reinforce this idea such as Little Sister, the self-titled Talking Turkeys and the anti-grammatical According to my Mood in that I have a poetic licence, I write the way I want, I drop my full stops where I like Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ highlighting this concept of incorrect grammar and punctuation. Talking Turkeys itself is not written nor performed in Standard English, the rhyming structure is rather simple and generally tends to stay the same throughout. In looking at Talking Turkeys being performed [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4AgPSjzXkw], Zephaniah provides a comic element to his poem in that not only does he entertain the crowd with funny little dances but he also changes his tone of voice in order to be best suited for the poem. This reinforces the point made earlier in regards to the use of Jamaican Patois in that Zephaniah has to almost create this character within him in order to accommodate for the poem. It is clear to see as to why young children would be interested in the poem in that there is a large comedy factor and at certain points throughout his performance he seems to get somewhat distracted from his recital, but nonetheless this adds to the humour of it all. Zephaniah connects with modern issues and introduces new perspectives to a young audience. Talking TurkeysÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ relates to different religions and cultures so every child can feel they are a part of society and not feel left outÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ The book is for children but the grown-ups will be sneaking off with it. Black Literature Project The effective imagery and informal language work well together and open up a world of possibilities for classroom activities. Politics, veganism and animals are prominent themes, touched upon with varying weight and humour. Zephaniahs words provoke and invoke; he challenges the reader to question societal ideals but also encourages compassion and equality. Irreverence for the academic trappings of traditional written poetry, a loose-foot, streetwise approach to form and to content and a large-hearted humanity, permeate his poetry, and this should ensure his popularity with school children natural inconoclasts for years to come. Errol Ll oyd, quoted in Books For Keeps Talking Turkeys has been reviewed by many critics [http://www.puffin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9780140363302,00.html#reviews], it is said that Zephaniah is the reigning king of childrens poetry He has an unselfconscious relish for language and word-play that never strays into the patronising dee-dum-dee-dum-dee-dum territory of so much of childrens poetry: his are poems that bounce up from the page and demand to be read, rapped, sung and hip-hopped aloud. (Independent on Sunday) Further, He brings Jamaican rhythms, the patois of the streets, the perception thatÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ poetry can be powerful, provocative, street-wiseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ He takes poetry off the page and into urban mouths, turns verse into sassy, beat-filled performance. (The Scotsman) Zephaniahs poetry can however be criticised in that some may argue his poems are too short, but nonetheless that concept is put down to the readers personal preference. Some would also argue that the incorrect use of English could be considered a negative point in that it does not promote to young readers how they should be speaking and spelling. Yet despite this, his use of improper language all adds to the overall effect of his poetry. The majority of Zephaniahs poetry is enjoyed by a wide range of people and as a result there is not much negative comments regarding what he writes, or rather, how he writes.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Suffering and The Book of Job Ã Ã Ã Life is difficult. "Suffering...is not an exception to the human condition, it is the human condition" (Gomes 405). The question of why life can be unjustly cruel is asked today and has been asked since the beginning of time. Ã And where is God in the midst of hardship? Is He non-existent, as the pagan statement, "It's Chance alone that moves and rules our lives" implies (Neiman 442). Or is God only partially in control of situations, as Harold Kushner concludes, writing, "there are some things God does not control" (462). Is all suffering a direct result of our own actions, as David Neiman offers ("He who is suffering and believes in a God of justice, must also blame himself for his state of being"" (438). Moses Maimonides prefers to view the question by focusing not on the external life that surrounds us, but on the internal condition of the heart. He argues that good and evil have their own reward and punishments within the spiritual realm and outward appearances are inconsequential (Behrens and Rosen 434). Ã For those who believe in a God who is living and active and who believe in the sanctity of the scriptures, the question of God's justice in the Bible does seem a contradiction at times. As Neiman observed, The Book of Proverbs presents a formula for life, promising blessings to the man who lives a moral life (436). But is The Book of Proverbs a collection of promises or is it the wise man's observations of probabilities? One can see the unpleasant consequences of poor choices, as well as the good fortunes of those who have lived a "clean" life, but sometimes this moral law breaks down. As Neiman states, "experience has led men to realize that ... ...t out of self-interest'" (460). Love is not self-seeking. Love is illustrated by a mother who cares for her newborn baby and expects nothing in return. She continues to love and nurture, until the child is an adult, in anticipation of the beautiful person the child will be. God wants us to anticipate the day when we will be made perfect, and trust His ways, like a child trusting its mother. Works Cited Behrens, Laurence, and Leonard J. Rosen, eds. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. 7th ed. NewYork: Longman, 2000. -Gomes, Peter. "The Bible and Suffering." 400-405. - Kushner, Harold S. "When Bad Things Happen to GoodÃ People."Ã 452-462. - MacLeisch, Archibald. "God Has Need of Man."Ã Ã 474-480.Ã - Neiman, David. "An Introduction to Job 435-444. The Bible. Revised Standard Version. 2nd ed. Dallas: Melton, 1971.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The covenants between God and man constitute one of the principal keys to the interpretation of the Old Testament, denoting the dividing lines between the different dispensations and indicating the several changes of procedure in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s dealings with the earth. There are arguably eight covenants made by God referred to in Scripture. Much could be written concerning these different covenants, but we will only deal with the covenants in Genesis. At various times God condescended to enter into a compact with man, and failure to observe the terms and scope of these compacts leads to the utmost confusion. These covenants are an important pact between Gods relation with man. The Adamic covenant was not the first covenant in the history of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with humanity. Rather it was given due to the failure of a perfect obedience of the covenanting partner and had entered into that first covenant with Adam at creation. Some have questioned whether it is appropriate to speak of a covenant when Adam was in Eden. Vavosar Powell preferred to call it a command. Thomas Goodwin saw it as the Ã¢â¬Å"Law of Creation.Ã¢â¬ The actual word covenant is not used in the Genesis narratives. However, the essential parts of a covenant are all there; a clear definition of the parties involved, a legally binding set of provisions that stipulates the conditions of their relationship, the promise of blessings for obedience, and the condition for obtaining those blessings. Moreover, in Hosea 6:7, referring to the sins of Israel, says Ã¢â¬Å"But they like men have transgressed the covenant.Ã¢â¬ The Targum, the Talmud, and the Vulgate render Ã¢â¬Å"like menÃ¢â ¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"like Adam.Ã¢â¬ In the Garden of Eden, it seems quite clear that there was a legally binding set of provisions that defin... ... between Me and you.Ã¢â¬ (Genesis 17:10) As the Lord has already initiated His covenant with Abraham in Genesis 15:18, this was a further confirmation and ratification of the covenant made previously. Circumcision is the Ã¢â¬Å"signÃ¢â¬ of the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"everlastingÃ¢â¬ covenant with Abraham. (Genesis 17:9-13) Significantly, the one in future generations not circumcised Ã¢â¬Å"shall be cut off from his kin,Ã¢â¬ that is, be expelled from the community that will experience the blessings of this Ã¢â¬Å"everlastingÃ¢â¬ covenant.Ã¢â¬ (Genesis 17:14) In conclusion, the covenants between God and man, under gird the totality of the biblical revelation. Specifically elucidated in Genesis, its promises govern the pattern of all that follows in Exodus to Revelation. Everything from the creation to Revelation, speaks of sin and redemption, the violation of the first covenant by Adam, and the following of another. The covenants between God and man Essay -- Old Testament, God, Genesis The covenants between God and man constitute one of the principal keys to the interpretation of the Old Testament, denoting the dividing lines between the different dispensations and indicating the several changes of procedure in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s dealings with the earth. There are arguably eight covenants made by God referred to in Scripture. Much could be written concerning these different covenants, but we will only deal with the covenants in Genesis. At various times God condescended to enter into a compact with man, and failure to observe the terms and scope of these compacts leads to the utmost confusion. These covenants are an important pact between Gods relation with man. The Adamic covenant was not the first covenant in the history of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with humanity. Rather it was given due to the failure of a perfect obedience of the covenanting partner and had entered into that first covenant with Adam at creation. Some have questioned whether it is appropriate to speak of a covenant when Adam was in Eden. Vavosar Powell preferred to call it a command. Thomas Goodwin saw it as the Ã¢â¬Å"Law of Creation.Ã¢â¬ The actual word covenant is not used in the Genesis narratives. However, the essential parts of a covenant are all there; a clear definition of the parties involved, a legally binding set of provisions that stipulates the conditions of their relationship, the promise of blessings for obedience, and the condition for obtaining those blessings. Moreover, in Hosea 6:7, referring to the sins of Israel, says Ã¢â¬Å"But they like men have transgressed the covenant.Ã¢â¬ The Targum, the Talmud, and the Vulgate render Ã¢â¬Å"like menÃ¢â ¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"like Adam.Ã¢â¬ In the Garden of Eden, it seems quite clear that there was a legally binding set of provisions that defin... ... between Me and you.Ã¢â¬ (Genesis 17:10) As the Lord has already initiated His covenant with Abraham in Genesis 15:18, this was a further confirmation and ratification of the covenant made previously. Circumcision is the Ã¢â¬Å"signÃ¢â¬ of the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"everlastingÃ¢â¬ covenant with Abraham. (Genesis 17:9-13) Significantly, the one in future generations not circumcised Ã¢â¬Å"shall be cut off from his kin,Ã¢â¬ that is, be expelled from the community that will experience the blessings of this Ã¢â¬Å"everlastingÃ¢â¬ covenant.Ã¢â¬ (Genesis 17:14) In conclusion, the covenants between God and man, under gird the totality of the biblical revelation. Specifically elucidated in Genesis, its promises govern the pattern of all that follows in Exodus to Revelation. Everything from the creation to Revelation, speaks of sin and redemption, the violation of the first covenant by Adam, and the following of another.
Struggling with Death in The Epic of Gilgamesh In the ?Epic of Gilgamesh,? Gilgamesh deals with an issue that nearly destroyed him. He sought after immortality so much that he put his own life on the edge. Centuries later, this quest unites our high tech, fast paced culture with the remote and different culture of Gilgamesh. Humanity has yet to find the secret of letting go of the idea of everlasting life. Many people today hold on to the topic of immortality because they find it so difficult to say goodbye to a loved one. Placing flowers on graves is a popular way to remember the deceased. Even years after the person has died, the family members and friends still go to the gravesite to reminisce. People find it difficult to accept the fact that they will never see someone again. They want to believe that the person is still there. Gilgamesh had the same problem. He made the journey looking for his friend. He couldn?t deal with the fact that Enkidu had died. He wanted him to live forever. Gilgamesh even went as far as almost sacrificing his life to find him...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
INTRODUCTION In an alkaline solution, dissolved oxygen will oxidize manganese(II) to the trivalent state. 8OH-(aq) + 4Mn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) Ã¯ ¼ Ã¯ ¼ Ã¯ ¼Å¾ 4Mn(OH)3(s) The analysis is completed by titrating the iodine produced from potassium iodide by manganese(III) hydroxide. 2Mn(OH)3(s) + 2I-(aq) + 6 H+(aq) Ã¯ ¼ Ã¯ ¼ Ã¯ ¼Å¾ 2Mn2+(aq) + I2(aq) + 6H2O(l) Sodium thiosulphate is used as the titrant. Success of the method is critically dependent upon the manner in which the sample is manipulated. At all stages, every method must be made to assure that oxygen is neither introduced to nor lost from the sample. Furthermore, the sample must be free of any solutes that will oxidize iodide or reduce iodine. Chemicals: Manganese(II) sulphate solution Ã¢â¬â prepared by dissolving 48 g of MnSO4.4H2O in water to five 100 cm3 solution; alkaline potassium iodide solutionÃ¢â¬âprepared by dissolving 15 g of KI in about 25 cm3 of water, adding 66 cm3 of 50% NaOH, and diluting to 100 cm3; concentrated sulphuriv(VI) acid; 0.0125 M sodium thiosulphate solution; starch solution (freshly prepared). Apparatus: 250 cm3 volumetric flask, 250 cm3 conical flask, measuring cylinders, titration apparatus, magnetic stirrer Procedure: 1.Use a 250 cm3 volumetric flask to collect water sample. Fill the flask completely with water without trapping any air bubbles. 2.Add 1 cm3 of manganese(II) sulphate solution to the sample using a pipette. Discharge the solution well below the surface (some overflow will occur). 3.Similarity introduce 1 cm3 of alkaline potassium iodide solution. Be sure that no air becomes entrapped. Invert the bottle to distribute the precipitate uniformly. [Hazard Warning: Care should be taken to avoid exposure to any overflow, as the solution is quite alkaline.] 4.When the precipitate hasÃ settled at least 3 cm below the stopper, introduce 1 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid well below the surface. Replace the stopper and carefully mix until the precipitate disappears. A magnetic stirrer is helpful here. 5.Allow the mixture to stand for 5 minutes and then withdraw 100cm3 of the acidified sample into a 250 cm3 conical flask. 6.Titrate with 0.0125M sodium thiosulphate until the iodine colour bec omes faint. Then add 1 cm3 of starch solution and continue adding the thiosulphate solution until the blue colour disappears. 7.Record the volume of thiosulphate solution used and calculate the dissolved oxygen content in the sample in mg dm-3. Remarks 1.If the water sample has a low DO value, it is recommended to withdraw 200 cm3 of the acidified sample into a 500 cm3 flask for the titration describe in step 5. 2.This experiment can be further developed into a project to study the extent of water pollution. (a)The water sample under investigation is divided into two portions. One portion of the sample is immediately analysed for dissolving oxygen using the Winkler method. The other portion is stored in the dark for five days. (b)Repeat the analysis with the water sample that has been stored in the dark for five days. The difference between the two measurements is the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), measured in mg dm-3.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Abstract:As the world's population lives longer, the significance of osteoporosis and fractures increases.Introduction:Osteoporosis is an age-associated disease, which is influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Age is a high hazard factor for osteoporosis. Lack of vitamin D and insufficiency of calcium absorption are the most popular reason for the osteoporosis in the elderly. (Jakob et al, 2014)Jakob, F., Seefried, L., ; Schwab, M. (2014). Alter und Osteoporose. Der Internist, 55(7), 755-761.?Jakob F, e. (2018). [Age and osteoporosis. Effects of aging on osteoporosis, the diagnostics and therapy]. Ã¢â¬â PubMed Ã¢â¬â NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24903137 [Accessed 16 May 2018].It is mostly a disease of old age people. The prevalence of osteoporosis increase significantly with age and it is an independent risk factor for the improvement of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. As indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data the diffusion of osteoporosis based on reduce density of hip bone was estimated at 4% in women 50 to 59 years of age compared to 44% in women 80 years of age and older. The number of seniors in risk for osteoporosis will continue increasing with the aging of society. (Vondracek et al , 2009).Vondracek, S. F., ; Linnebur, S. A. (2009). Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in the older senior. Clinical interventions in aging, 4, 121.? I choose this topic because when I was in clinical area I saw many old patient they came to do x-ray and when I read the justification I saw they have osteoporosis. So I want to know how the x-ray help to diagnosis this disease. In this assignment I will talk about first the principles of the osteoporosis, the equipment components required for carrying out the osteoporosis examination and their functions. Also, I will discuss the role of radiographer and technical and radiation exposure considerations of it. Finally, I will talk about one clinical example for osteoporosis patient with clear images.Principle:Osteoporosis was described as a pathological in which there is non-attendance of bone tissue, however that tissue which remains is completely calcified. Osteoporosis creates when bone resorption happens too rapidly and substitution happens too gradually. (Makhdoom, et al,2014) The older senior is at high risk for osteoporosis. It is important for healthcare providers to be fully aware of the potential risks and benefits of diagnosing and treating osteoporosis in the older senior population. Data indicate that bone mineral density testing is under-utilized and drug therapy is often not initiated when indicated in this population. Bone mineral density testing with central dual energy x-ray absorptiometry is essential and cost-effective in this population. All elder people should be instructed on a bone-healthy lifestyle containing age-appropriate weight-bearing exercise and smoking cessation if necessary. The very important role in the risk for osteoporotic fractures, especially in the older senior is a falls play. The risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is high in the older senior and can contribute to falls and fractures. To treat this problem they should intake sufficient amount of calcium and vitamin D. (Vondracek et al,2009) Vondracek, S. F., ; Linnebur, S. A. (2009). Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in the older senior. Clinical interventions in aging, 4, 121.?DEXA procedure detects the osteoporosis disease and this early diagnosis will improve the disease management practices and would help in impeding national productivity losses by mass screening and awareness. Also, it can help prevent osteoporosis. (Makhdoom, et al,2014) Makhdoom, A., Rahopoto, M., Siddiqui, K. A., ; Qureshi, G. A. (2014). Early Detection of Osteoporosis by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 30(6), 1265.? Equipment component and function:The technique used to measure the mineral bone density and the average concentration of mineral in a defined section of bone is the Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). It performed with a low radiation dose and accurate (exact measurement of BMD), precise and flexible (different regions can be scanned). A DEXA scanner consists of a low-dose x-ray tube with two energies for separating mineral and soft-tissue components and a high-resolution multidetector array. It has one of two different system a fan-beam device that emits alternating high (140 kVp) and low (70Ã¢â¬â100 kVp) x-rays and sweeps across a scan area or a constant x-ray beam with a rare-earth filter and energy-specific absorption, which separates photons of higher (70 keV) and lower (40 keV) energy.( Lorente-Ramos et al,2011).Lorente-Ramos, R., Azpeitia-ArmÃ ¡n, J., MuÃ ±oz-HernÃ ¡ndez, A., GarcÃ a-GÃ ³mez, J. M., DÃ ez-MartÃ nez, P., ; Grande-BÃ ¡rez, M. (2011), Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the diagnosis of osteoporosis: a practical guide. American Journal of Roentgenology, 196(4), pp 897-904.Role of radiographer with osteoporosis patients:Understanding every step of the procedure is important for maximizing the usefulness of the imaging evaluation to patients and referring clinicians in this procedure the radiographer play a great role in preparing the patient and taking care of the patient before, during and after examination. Before the examination, the radiographer must be Check patient history, old x-ray, Select the optimum exposure factors, Prepare the room for examination and Prepare the patient for the examination. During examinationThe radiographer must be Explain the procedure to patient and relative ,Reassure and care for patient during examination, Position the patient, Place radiation protection and Constantly assess the patient's condition and then Expose. After examination they should be Move the tube away from patient, lower x-ray table down and finally given instructions to patient.Radiation exposure in X-ray-based imaging techniques used in osteoporosis:In old patients, central DEXA measurements of the lumbar spine and proximal femur are recommended. Two regions should be measured so that if one is unavailable, the forearm can be imaged. Appropriate patient positioning is essential for optimizing BMD measurement. The patients are placed in the supine position for poster anterior imaging of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and sitting next to the table for imaging of the forearm. Images are assessed for patient movement. The area of interest exceeding 1Ã¢â¬â2 cm and superior and inferior limits should be included to verify that the complete anatomic region is scanned. The bone axis should be straight and centered and the lesser trochanter should not be seen on images of the proximal femur. Equipment from various manufacturers generates automatic ROIs, which should be reviewed. Correct numbering of vertebral bodies is the main goal in DEXA of the lumbar spine. The indicators of correct positioning are as follows: the ribs appear at T12, the largest transverse processes are L3, the vertebral area values increase from L1 to L4, BMD increases from L1 to L3, and the BMD of L4 is similar to or slightly less than that of L3. Sometimes radiographs are necessary for correlation. Altered vertebrae (deformed or with lesions or artifacts in them) should be excluded from the analysis. If only one vertebral body is left, the region is not useful for diagnosis. In hip scanning, it is important to avoid undesired bone. The anatomic landmark selected for femoral neck ROI placement is the greater trochanteric notch.( Lorente-Ramos et al,2011) Case study:A 70 years old patient was admitted to Khawla hospital due to presence of lower back pain and restricted waist movement. A lumbar x-ray was done to the patient and showed sever narrowing of the disc space between L3 and L4 with no fractures over the lumbar bodies. For further investigation, a bone densitometry test was done that showed the presence of severe presence of osteoporosis with increased risk of fracture. Thus, discectomy was done for the herniated portion of the disk between L3 and L4 that compresses the nerves and causes the pain and instrumented fusion of L3 and L4 was also done to stabilize and strengtnus the spine after the intervertebral joint space reduction that occurred between L3 and L4. Finally, the patient was prescribed with vitamin D and calcium tablets to compensate the calcium and vitamin D reduction due to the osteoporosis.(khawla hospital,2018) .(khawla hospital,2018) Conclusion: Over all, Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder of the skeleton that is characterized by a reduction in bone mass. Although the condition affects a higher percentage of old people. The importance of osteoporosis lies in the fact that osteoporotic bones are more fragile and susceptible to fracture than normal bones. DEXA is a quick, accurate, low-cost imaging method for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It comprises adequate performance (symmetry, morphology, positioning), ROI placement, detection of artifacts, pathologic evaluation (incidental findings and those affecting analysis), and evaluation of bone mineral density.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The Accounting Department 1. Inkwell has a small finance team. The accounting department is based in the head office of the company, which is located in Birmingham. There are 8 people in the finance team. Each member of the team has their own computer. The team has access to the internet using Firefox and two printers integrated to each computer. 2. Inkwell has one Financial Director, Anil Gupta. AnilÃ¢â¬â¢s main job is to manage the overall financial position of the business, ensuring capital investments and corporate strategy is properly dealt with. He has delegated the running of the accounts department to the company accountant. 3. Inkwell has one company accountant, Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Payne who has been in charge of most financial affairs before Anil Gupta joined the company. The others in the financial team report to him. 4. The team consists of one accounts technician, one General Ledger and Inventory Clerk, one Accounts Payable Clerk, one Accounts Receivable Clerk, one Costing Technician and one Payroll and Personnel Database clerk. 5. The accounting department keep a close relationship with the shop staff. The main mode of communication is through email and phone calls, occasionally a member from the team will pay them an unexpected visit. The Accounting Department- Key Internal Stakeholders 1. Anil Gupta, Financial Director, has the overall responsibility for all finance, legal and accounting procedures and systems. He produces annual reports and statutory accounts. Alongside this he deals with financial issues such as banking and also legal issues, such as contacts. Anil has 30% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shares when joined the directors in 2008. 2. Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Payne, the Company Accountant, has been in the company since the set up of the company. His main duties include running the day to day responsibility of the accounts department. He also produces monthly management accounts and approves payments to suppliers. After observing the company there is a low level of tension between him and Anil. However, Michael still needs to report to Anil, if he likes it or not. 3. Alex Fox, accounting technician, has the responsibility of making sure the accounting system is reviewed and recommend changes, along with other project work. She has to report to both Anil and Michael, however works more closely to Michael. 4. Michelle Labelle, General Ledger and Inventory Clerk, has the duties of maintaining the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cash book and keeping control on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory. This requires Michelle to keep in close communication with the store managers. She too reports to Michael. 5. Liana Khan, Accounts payable Clerk, has the responsibility of entering all the suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ invoices and credit notes on to the accounting system. She also has to ensure payments are arranged to suppliers. Liana also reports to Michael, her Father in Law. 6. Greg Morris, Accounts Receivable Clerk, has the duties of inputting all data received by customers, as well as credit control duties. These duties include sending out monthly statements to customer, working out discounts and chasing customers who have not paid in the time given. 7. Alan Cook, Costing Technician, has the responsibility of operating the costing system. This means Alan has to work closely with the Sales director in order to reach market prices. Alan uses Quickcost software to do his work and has been doing it for since the company started. He also monitors the cost and profitability of each cartridge on a monthly bases and advises management about variance targets. 8. Sharon Ward, Payroll and Personnel Clerk is responsible for the running of the payroll, both Weekly and monthly and also to make sure the personnel database is always up to date. Sharon uses Sage Payroll systems to process all her statutory forms.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
My lady love, my dove. Arthur is happily married to Pamela, a very wealthy woman. They are awaiting some weekend guests, the Snapes, and Pamela isn't looking forward to it. The only reason she invited them was that the Snapes are good bridge players and they play for a decent stake. Suddenly Pamela gets the idea that they should bug the Snapes's room. She wonders what they think about them. Bored with the idea of entertaining them, Pamela, a domineering woman, persuaded Arthur to conceal a loud speaker in the guest bedroom as a joke. Arthur gave in only to avoid an argument.Arthur doesn't like the idea, but Pamela bullies him and reminds him that they've done similar things together in the past. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm a nasty person,Ã¢â¬ she says. Ã¢â¬Å"And so are you Ã¢â¬â in a secret sort of way. That's why we get along together. Ã¢â¬ Although Arthur was against the idea, he did his job with incredible enthusiasm. He carefully put the wire for a long time, thinking about how to do ev erything quickly and at the same time in the best way. In the hero woked up passion. It was their common characteristic that united them. On the other hand, Pamela was more playful, you can tell, she came up with the idea and Arthur supported her.Later the guests arrive and everyone has a pleasant dinner. Afterwards they play bridge, and the Snapes have all the luck. The wife, Sally, makes one mistake though that costs them several hundred points. At the end of the evening the couples part and Pamela excitedly tells Arthur to turn on the speaker. They are astonished to hear Mr. Snape reprimanding his wife for her earlier bridge error. She apologizes, but he tells her that they're just going to have to practice some more. Arthur realizes that they're talking about a betting code which allows them to cheat and know all of their partner's cards.They were cheating their host out of all the money they could. Arthur was horrified, but Pamela thought it was terrific. She decided they shoul d begin to learn their own code immediately. Again Arthur was unable to argue. Ã «Why, Arthur, this is a marvellous ideaÃ¢â¬ ¦ Go fetch a deck of cards; we'll start right away. Ã » Some words about these two couples. Arthur really loves his wife, admires her, talks with her sincerely. Their relationship seems sometimes difficult, but in fact their minor disputes do not carry anger or misunderstanding. The second couple is quite different.At the sight of all, they behave like a good, loving couple, but in fact their relationship is poor. Husband says nice things to his wife when she is mistaken. In the story, after the game the guests went to their room, and our heroes became to eavesdrop on them. The worst thing is not that the guests cheated during the game. The ratio of the husband to his wife is terrible. He presses his wife, speaks with her in a gruff voice, scolds, completely suppresses her will. He does not care that she was tired, he does not care about her feelings. These two couples are diametrically opposed.I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that the hero Arthur is weak. This couple reminded me of the notion of mind and heart. Pamela easily takes crazy decisions, pushes them to her husband, and he thinks for a long time, trying to argue, but at the time of surrender takes a new game. This feature of craving for something forbidden is in both, but manifests itself in different ways. The story shows two types of relationships in the family. When someone controls and suppresses, and when people find common ground and go through life, sharing not only common interests but also feelings and respect for each other. My Love My Dove My lady love, my dove. Arthur is happily married to Pamela, a very wealthy woman. They are awaiting some weekend guests, the Snapes, and Pamela isn't looking forward to it. The only reason she invited them was that the Snapes are good bridge players and they play for a decent stake. Suddenly Pamela gets the idea that they should bug the Snapes's room. She wonders what they think about them. Bored with the idea of entertaining them, Pamela, a domineering woman, persuaded Arthur to conceal a loud speaker in the guest bedroom as a joke. Arthur gave in only to avoid an argument.Arthur doesn't like the idea, but Pamela bullies him and reminds him that they've done similar things together in the past. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm a nasty person,Ã¢â¬ she says. Ã¢â¬Å"And so are you Ã¢â¬â in a secret sort of way. That's why we get along together. Ã¢â¬ Although Arthur was against the idea, he did his job with incredible enthusiasm. He carefully put the wire for a long time, thinking about how to do ev erything quickly and at the same time in the best way. In the hero woked up passion. It was their common characteristic that united them. On the other hand, Pamela was more playful, you can tell, she came up with the idea and Arthur supported her.Later the guests arrive and everyone has a pleasant dinner. Afterwards they play bridge, and the Snapes have all the luck. The wife, Sally, makes one mistake though that costs them several hundred points. At the end of the evening the couples part and Pamela excitedly tells Arthur to turn on the speaker. They are astonished to hear Mr. Snape reprimanding his wife for her earlier bridge error. She apologizes, but he tells her that they're just going to have to practice some more. Arthur realizes that they're talking about a betting code which allows them to cheat and know all of their partner's cards.They were cheating their host out of all the money they could. Arthur was horrified, but Pamela thought it was terrific. She decided they shoul d begin to learn their own code immediately. Again Arthur was unable to argue. Ã «Why, Arthur, this is a marvellous ideaÃ¢â¬ ¦ Go fetch a deck of cards; we'll start right away. Ã » Some words about these two couples. Arthur really loves his wife, admires her, talks with her sincerely. Their relationship seems sometimes difficult, but in fact their minor disputes do not carry anger or misunderstanding. The second couple is quite different.At the sight of all, they behave like a good, loving couple, but in fact their relationship is poor. Husband says nice things to his wife when she is mistaken. In the story, after the game the guests went to their room, and our heroes became to eavesdrop on them. The worst thing is not that the guests cheated during the game. The ratio of the husband to his wife is terrible. He presses his wife, speaks with her in a gruff voice, scolds, completely suppresses her will. He does not care that she was tired, he does not care about her feelings. These two couples are diametrically opposed.I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that the hero Arthur is weak. This couple reminded me of the notion of mind and heart. Pamela easily takes crazy decisions, pushes them to her husband, and he thinks for a long time, trying to argue, but at the time of surrender takes a new game. This feature of craving for something forbidden is in both, but manifests itself in different ways. The story shows two types of relationships in the family. When someone controls and suppresses, and when people find common ground and go through life, sharing not only common interests but also feelings and respect for each other.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Anthropology - Essay Example In this essay, we will discuss the culture of Mormons, who share beliefs, values, and practices that are different from those of the United States. Most believers adopt particular political and cultural beliefs because of their religious doctrines. According to Givens (2007, p25), Mormonism is not only a culture but also a religion. Most people are serious with their religious beliefs and faith, which influence the way they live and relate with others. Most believers adopt political and cultural beliefs based on their religious views. For instance, an evangelic who believes that abortion is unethical based his/her beliefs on cultural and political views that flow in the religious convictions. Although not all evangelicals who oppose abortion, those who do base their arguments on religion point of view. As many analyze the culture and religion of Marmon, it is evident that there is war that exists in this cultural group and other groups in the United States. According to Davies (2000, p33), the biggest problem is the different interpretations of life that exists in this cultural group. Often, the culture have backed some local decisions and ignored some discussions discussed in the nation. For instance, while the majority support abortion in cases when the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s health is in danger, this culture believes that abortion is illegal at all given chances. The history and culture of the Mormon cannot be understood without an understanding of the Mormon religion. The great migration that occurred in 1846-1847 was one-step in the quest of the religious growth and freedom (Givens 2007, p66). The Mormon religion also known as the Church of Latter Day Saints; was established in 1830 by Joseph Smith. The founder had a strong vision in, which he claimed that he saw an angel who buried gold plates. From the vision, the founder believed that angels are spiritual beings who work hard to protect us from the harm in the society. In this case, the gold plate symbolized a ny material wealth that hinders and individual to live a fulfilling life. Mormon practices and beliefs such as polygamy contributed to an increasing intolerance for some Illinois citizens. The reason many criticize this subculture is that at some point, Joseph Smith announced that he received a revelation from God on allowing polygamy. It took great courage to expose this subject to the public bearing in mind most religions criticize this concept. Most believers were willing to enter into the agreement set by the founder and many did this after much praying and anguish. Unlike other subcultures in the United States, the outside world was hostile to the plural marriage. Regardless of the challenges faced, the church gave its way to preserve the existence of the faith. There have been contentious issues regarding this subject in the 20th century. According to Yorgason (2003, p22), there are over 30, 000 people practicing polygamy in Arizona, Montana, Idaho, and Uta who believe that th ey are preserving Mormon customs and beliefs. In essence, many have adopted that this is the best way of life based on the teachings of the church. For the past years, the Utah government has criticized polygamy and in turn, this has affected Mormon culture. The government believes that polygamy should not be allowed at any given cost as it promotes immorality and adultery. The American government has also taken
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Workplace Learning and Human Resource Management - Essay Example Because of the continuous political, social and economic changes that are taking place within the external business environment, organizational learning is necessary to ensure that each employee is prepared and ready in terms of addressing business and non-business related problems that may eventually hinder organizational success and its overall performance. The nature of formal learning is based on curriculum (Module 1 - Workplace Learning and Human Resource Management n.d.). Usually, formal learning approach takes place within the four-corners of the classroom. On the other hand, informal learning is referring to incidental and unstructured learning which could take place anytime within the work environment (Levenberg and Caspi 2010; Rogers 2003). Therefore, one of the main differences between formal and informal learning is that formal learning is strongly supported by either educational or training institutions except for informal learning (Levenberg and Caspi 2010). Not everyth ing that the workers need to learn can be taught and learned from a formal workplace learning intervention. Given that each employee has the option to learn through informal learning, this report will identify and discuss the reasons why organisations can never or should never rely entirely on formal workplace learning. In conclusion, the learning and economic benefits associated with informal learning will be provided. Eventually, a list of recommendations based on the factors that could hinder the practice of informal learning within the work environment will be identified and thoroughly discussed. Reasons Why Organisations Should Not Rely Entirely on Formal Workplace Learning Limitations of Formal Teaching Techniques Learning that takes place within a formal learning environment normally applies a teacher-led type of learning process (Dillon and Maguire 2007, p. 168). Since a formal learning environment does not always give the learners the opportunity to learn through continuous interaction with other learners within the group, information gathered by the learners is usually limited in terms of fully understanding concepts and theories behind what is being taught in class. Likewise, learners within a formal learning environment may not have the opportunity to ask or be too shy to ask specific question pertaining to what is being discussed inside a formal learning environment. Another limitation associated with the use of formal teaching techniques
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
See below - Essay Example For instance, it has never been established that illicit drugs manufactured in Australia have been exported to other countries like the United States (Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, 2007). In Australia, the Commonwealth, the States and the Territories cooperate with each other in making legislation that addresses the supply, distribution, possession and use of narcotics. These bodies share the responsibility for enacting relevant legislation. There is a trans-state supply of illicit drugs in Australia, which has no geographical boundaries within the nation. Moreover, it is also evident that in certain incidents there had been cross national supply of drugs (The Attorney - General, 1989). The courts and the police employ drug diversion initiatives to treat drug addicts. These initiatives attempt to divert users from taking drugs. Education and compulsory assessment are two major diversions provided to drug abusers. After completion of the assessment, drug users are shifted to the appropriate education or treatment program. In April 1999, the Council of Australian Governments or COAG implemented the national strategy, by which concrete and concerted action was to be taken against drug peddlers and possessors (Crime Prevention and Community Safety Learning Circles). The National Illicit Drug Diversion Initiative provides early intervention measures for first time abusers and other less serious offenders; which provide either treatment or education, without involving the criminal justice system. The aim of this strategy is to encourage and motivate drug users to identify their drug addiction, at an early stage, and obtain appropriate treatment. This enables them to rejoin society without causing any adverse impact and ensures safety. Proponents of diversion schemes argue that educating users and providing subsequent treatment measures for first time users in the early
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
School Uniforms are Necessary in Todays World - Essay Example School Uniforms are Necessary in TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s World There is a long history of the use of uniforms in school, most coming from the private sector until recent years, all of which demonstrate these benefits do exist. While most of the uniform policies used in public schools include relatively general restrictions, such as navy or khaki pants and solid color shirts with collars without brand name requirements or specific, school-related insignia required, there has still been a great opposition to these policies by people who mistakenly insist that school uniform policies somehow restrict a childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to express him or herself. Examining the history of the use of school uniforms in public schools in this country reveals that requiring school uniforms provides a number of advantages that outweigh any arguments against them. The idea of requiring students to wear uniforms is nothing new and has been used for at least a century to help foster a sense of academia and respect for oneself within the school setting. When President Clinton said Ã¢â¬Å"I believe we should give strong support to school districts that decide to require young students to wear school uniformsÃ¢â¬ , he had based his opinion on a history of school uniforms having a calming effect on students. In England, school uniforms had been used for years both to distinguish those children who were part of the lower classes, attending schools that provided their uniform clothing for them, and to distinguish those children who were of the decidedly upper class as a badge of honor and social placement.
Monday, September 9, 2019
Aldous Huxleys Brave New World and the Movie Gattaca - Genetic Engineering and Its Effects on People - Essay Example On the other hand, Gattaca by Niccol seeks to present a biological vision whereby in the future, liberal eugenics drives the society through the selection of potential children through pre-implantation genetic processes. Through this envisioned process, best hereditary traits of the parents are maintained and passed down to their children while comparatively vague traits undergo elimination. Most importantly, the movie shows concern on the effects and consequences of the reproductive technologies that facilitate eugenics. Evidently, both Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and Gattaca by Andrew Niccol seek to enhance and adapt the engineering advancements allowing genetic alteration to produce a new generation of humans. However, both illustrate a certain degree of fear of the outcome as well as the effects resulting from excessive genetic engineering on people. At the outset, evidence shows Dr LamarÃ¢â¬â¢s battle within himself stating human nature as the problem. He says that creation of genetically superior society consequences to snatching away of the rights and dreams of the society born as Ã¢â¬Å"God-children.Ã¢â¬ This quote clearly illustrates the detrimental idealism behind genetic engineering. Realistically, the story in Gattaca mainly seeks to show how aspects of desire and heart prove to be immeasurable but in an ironic way. Moreover, Lenina in Brave New World quotes that everyone works for everyone else. This quote focuses on insisting on the neutrality of humans even with the attempts to create a difference through genetic alteration. Furthermore, this quote depicts the equality of both Ã¢â¬Å"species,Ã¢â¬ regardless of caste, to death. Moreover, Gattaca portrays a new world in which everybody, especially the successful, undergoes genetic alteration to perfect their DNA. Vincent further insists on the need for genetic alteration to become successful when he quotes that the normal humans who have not been genetically altered are outcasts with less capability in the real world.Ã Ã
Business Strategy - multi-national conglomerate - Essay Example Due to the company's huge size, it faces problems adjusting to the requirements in rapidly changing market conditions. 22.214.171.124 Recommended Strategies The company should concentrate on development of cordless tools and market them using its effective advertising strategy. The manufacturing plant needs to be relocated to relatively economical area so that the cost of production can be reduced. Separate positioning is required for consumer and professional tools; hence the company should brand them separately. Smaller and manageable Strategic Business Units (SBUs) can be created which are more responsive to the changing market demand and needs. The company should engage the distributors using concept of vertical integration. 1.2.2 Makatume Lack of focus on power tools for consumer market channel that is expected to grow. This might result in loss of revenue to the company. 126.96.36.199 Recommended Strategies The company needs to address this issue by establishing a division for producing power tools for consumer market including corded and cordless tools. These tools should be developed for individuals and Do-It-Yourself (DIY) type of users. 1.3 Opportunities 1.3.1 Smith and White Corporation The rest of the market consists of several domestic and foreign niche competitors with no one having greater than 5% share of the total market. The cordless tools market is growing at a high rate and can be tapped. 188.8.131.52 Recommended Strategies The company should focus on developing cordless tools as the market is growing at a very high rate of 10% per year. Research and development budget needs to be established and innovative designs and models should be developed to tap this developing market. In addition, the company should develop strategies to increase barriers to entry for...The manufacturing plant needs to be relocated to relatively economical area so that the cost of production can be reduced. Separate positioning is required for consumer and professional tools; hence the company should brand them separately. Smaller and manageable Strategic Business Units (SBUs) can be created which are more responsive to the changing market demand and needs. The company should engage the distributors using concept of vertical integration. The company needs to address this issue by establishing a division for producing power tools for consumer market including corded and cordless tools. These tools should be developed for individuals and Do-It-Yourself (DIY) type of users. The company should focus on developing cordless tools as the market is growing at a very high rate of 10% per year. Research and development budget needs to be established and innovative designs and models should be developed to tap this developing market. In addition, the company should develop strategies to increase barriers to entry for new competitors making it difficult for them to enter the market. In addition to raising barriers to entry for potential new entrants in to the market, the company should focus on untapped consumer channel power tools m
Sunday, September 8, 2019
The impact of the removal of DRA on the management of Human Resources in Organisations - Dissertation Example Presentation and description of data shall be done by complying results from core aspects of the questionnaire. The results shall be presented quantitatively by the use of tables and charts to organize data collected. After this, the researcher shall draw on the flow of information received in the data analysis to build three major themes in relation to the research problem. Finally, the researcher shall discuss and interpret data by grouping the data presented into three to correspond to the themes. The discussion and interpretation shall be done qualitatively by drawing subjective conclusions based on concerns and theories raised by various authors and researchers in the literature review. 4.1 PRESENTATION AND DESCRIPTION OF DATA Based on the purpose of the study and research questions raised by the researcher, responses on six key questions from the questionnaire have been presented and described in this section. Answers to these questions are useful in find out factors that have accounted for the scraping of the DRA, the merits and de-merits that are likely to be associated with the scraping of the DRA, and measures that are needed to be put in place to ensure that the policy of scraping the DRA useful. 4.1.1 What is your level of preference for being served by older people aged 55-65 in organisations? The researcher sought to know how well respondents preferred the serviced of older people aged 55-65 in organisations. This question was to draw an inference on the usefulness of older people in organisations and find out their contribution to the development and daily running of various organisations. The table below presents respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ level of preference for being served by older people Table 4.1 Preference for being served by Older People Preference Level Number of Respondents Percentage Very much preferred 3 15 Preferred 2 10 Not preferred 9 45 Not preferred at all 6 30 Total 20 100 From table 4.1, it can be seen that out of the twenty (20) resp ondents, 15% of them had a high level of preference for being served by older people. 10% of respondents preferred to be served by older people but did not esteem that so much. 45% of respondents did not prefer being served by older people whereas 30% did wished they were never served by older people. The respondents who were aged between 18 and 70 said their preferences were informed by factors as such as working experience, worker ethics and approachability. 4.1.2 Do you support the scraping of DRA? This component of the questionnaire was a build up to the question asked in 4.1.1. In simple terms, the researcher wanted to find out from respondents whether or not they supported the policy of scraping the DRA to enable people to work in organisations till they themselves felt the need to drop. Out of the twenty (20) people who responded to the questionnaire, thirteen (13) of them answered Ã¢â¬ËNoÃ¢â¬â¢ to the question whether or not the DRA should be scrapped. This means thirtee n (13) respondents wanted employees to retire at age 65. Seven (7) respondents answered Ã¢â¬ËYesÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning they wanted employees to work after age 65. Proportionally, If 20 respondents represent 360Ã °, 13 respondents = 7 x 360 20 = 234Ã ° representing Ã¢â¬ËNoÃ¢â¬â¢ On the other hand If 20 respondents
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Mussolini Policies Essay a) Relations with the Catholic Church: Even though Mussolini had seemed anti-clerical and had written Ã¢â¬Å"God Does Not ExistÃ¢â¬ he had began forming a good relationship with the Roman Catholic Church because of its huge power and influence. He had begun forming this good relationship by getting married in a church in 1926 and having his two children baptized. He had also closed down some wine shops and nightclubs. In 1929 the Lateran treaty was signed after a series of meetings it had recognized the popeÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereign rule, the church had received 750 million lire cash and 1000 million lire in government bonds for the loss of the papal states in 1860. Catholicism had also become the state religion; church marriages became legal, religious education were a must in secondary schools, catholic action would continue as long as it was independent of political parties and it was subordinate to the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy. This treaty had gotten the church and itÃ¢â¬â¢s faithful followers on MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s side. However, this treaty had angered the radical fascists who were anti-clerical since the independence of the church meant there would be no totalitarian rule. The church had also been against communism and socialism therefore when the fascist destroyed the left this had brought Mussolini closer to the church. Mussolini had also strengthened this relationship by exempting the clergy from paying taxes in the mid 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s in return the Pius XI forced Dom Sturzo to resign since he was a fierce opponent of fascism. However, some friction remained between the fascist government and the Catholic Church as the catholic youth movements rivaled the fascist youth and student organizations. Moreover, some of the members of the catholic student organization were becoming influential and became significant leaders in the Christian Democratic Party in Italy after 1945 such as Aldo Moro in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, which created problems for the fascists. The pope had also disapproved of the anti-Semitic laws introduced by Mussolini. However, he had approved of the invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 since it was similar to a crusade and his intervention in the Spanish civil war in 1926 to stop the Left. MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the church remained well since they both gained a lot from their treaty. This policy had brought back the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s power and had made MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s aim to build a new fascist generation impossible. b) Education and youth movements: Italian fascism like all other fascists had wanted to influence the young generation. In 1926 the Opera Nazionale Balilla was established bringing together fascist youth organizations and giving government funding. It was placed under the ministry of education in 1929 and they had begun closing rival youth organizations except the catholic youth groups. In 1932 the Ballila membership became obligatory. In 1937 the ONB joined with the young fascists to create one youth organization called Gioventu Italiana del Littorio for 6-21 year olds. The Ballila was political and it was militarized but it was also filled with sports and recreational activities, which attracted children, but 40% of the population had not joined showing the failure of this policy. At first Italian schools had some freedom but Mussolini had appointed the philosopher Giovanni Gentile to become the first minister of education. In 1923 Gentile had passed the education act which had changed education by promoting grammar schools, encouraging philosophy, classical studies and had not emphasized on technical and vocational education. To ensure that the schools would not spread anti-fascist ideas, anti-fascist teachers were removed and teachers were forced to take an oath of loyalty. Mussolini had started to really control schools in the mid 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, as schools were obliged to use fascist textbooks. In 1936 there was also a history textbook that had to be taught which focused on promoting a part of Italian history that would create loyalty to Mussolini. Physical education was also important to have healthy kids who could go to war and be prepared for motherhood. Therefore, Mussolini had greatly impacted education in order to create loyalty to him. c) The battle of the births In order to make Italy a great power Mussolini had launched in 1927 a battle for the births so that ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s population could go from 37 to 60 million. The government started encouraging marriage by forcing more taxes on bachelors, awarding prizes to women with the most children, families with 10 or more children were exempted from paying taxes, loans were given to newly married couple, family allowances were introduced in 1934 finally the criminal code in 1932 had banned contraception, abortion and sterilization. This policy had failed since birth rate continued to fall in 1922 there was 147.5 births for every 1000 women of childbearing age while in 1936 it had fallen to 102.7 births. The population had only reached 44 million in 1940. However, this was only due to the falling of death rate and emigration but the government had failed to encourage early marriage as the average age at which they got married rose from the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. d) The media and the arts Mussolini wanted to suppress opposition so he started by censoring newspapers in 1923 and the fascists government had taken owned 10% of newspapers which meant it did not take over press but controlled what they wrote as the editors that would oppose him would be fined or banned from journalism. At first the fascist government saw radio and film as being insignificant but this changed when the government broadcasts increased and the ownership of radios went up to one million. Similarly, in 1924 a government film agency called Istituto Luce was created to make documentaries. In 1937 the government founded an Italian film studio called Cinecitta. However, Mussolini began really using propaganda in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s in order to form a new type of Italian, a heroic and energetic one. In 1925 the cult of the Duce was launched as was the biography of Mussolini called Dux. In this book Mussolini was presented as an athlete, hard working and loved the people. There were also many parades to elaborate rituals in order to revive roman spirit. The use of propaganda had aided Mussolini to become more popular in the years 1929-36. However, this popularity had begun to diminish once Mussolini became more radical as he applied the anti-Semitic policy and joined WWII. Mussolini did not get involved in art as much as Hitler had but there were division within the fascists as to which type of art to support. The neo-classicists preferred architecture and art that was inspired by ancient Rome while the modernists encouraged experimental art. Therefore, this lead to the formation of two artistic prizes, the Cremona prize for traditional art and propaganda while the Bergamo prize encouraged experimentation. To try to spread access to art the fascist government organized almost 50 art exhibitions a year. e) Racial policies (Anti-Semitic laws) Early on Mussolini had not shown any signs anti-Semitism however he had been racist against Africans in Libya and Abyssinia. One of the theories is that Mussolini had wanted to weaken the Jews because in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s he wanted to start a war and was not sure whether they would be loyal or not. Another theory is that in 1938 Mussolini was getting closer to Germany but while Hitler never pushed him to adopt anti-Semitism he might have chosen to adopt it in order to get closer to Hitler. Mussolini had started this policy by writing an article on reducing the number of Jews in 1938. He had then banned marriage between Jews and non-Jews, forbidden the Jews from jobs in civil service, teaching and PNF membership. The Jewish kids were also excluded from state schools and up to 10000 non-Italian Jews were deported. This law had caused Mussolini to become unpopular even within his own party who was made up of one third of Jews. The church that had a major influence had also criticized this law therefore making Mussolini even more unpopular. By 1941 6000 Italian Jews had left Italy among them were businessmen, professionals and academics therefore when they left the economy was badly affected. And wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t implemented systematically f) Other areas/ points of your own: Economic policies Mussolini had wanted to improve the economy to prevent foreign input this policy was called Autarky. He had adopted the battle of the grains in 1925 to improve agriculture to increase grain production in order to show economic strength therefore leading to nationalism. This policy had succeeded as imports were reduced by 75% between 1925 and 1935 therefore increasing MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity. However, to increase production of wheat he needed more land to plant and he started using the land suitable for citrus which caused a decrease in their production and poverty in the south still continued. Another policy he had adopted was the corporate state in 1926 to manage relationships between employer and employee so as to cooperate therefore leading to more production. By 1934 22 corporations were set up and had succeeded to influence the economy. However, the corporations were just advisors that were dominated by fascists therefore they did what is best for them and left the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s interests aside. g) Conclusion Mussolini had adopted many policies that had gained him popularity and changed the Italian society such as the relationship with the church and influencing the media and the arts. However, when he had become more radical and adopted the anti-Semitic policy and tried to control education he had began losing popularity, which had eventually lead to his fall. To what extent was Mussolini influential in international affairs in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s? After the league of nations was undermined by the Manchuria crisis therefore when Hitler had began expanding and broke the treaty of Versailles by announcing his intention to build an army of 550000 men using conscription Mussolini decided to sign the stress front on 1935 with France and Britain. This stated that the three countries would take action if Germany broke the treaty of Versailles further. However, this agreement fell apart when Britain did not consult Italy or France before singing the Anglo-German naval agreement in 1935, which allowed Germany to expand its navy beyond what the treaty Versailles had allowed. Mussolini had also invaded Abyssinian, which Britain and France disapproved of. Therefore this shows that his international affairs with other countries had failed. Moreover, when Mussolini had invaded Abyssinia in 1935 it had changed his foreign policy completely his relationship with Britain and France was destroyed while his relationship with Germany was improving. Although Mussolini though France and Britain would not react to this invasion the League of Nations imposed economic sanctions since Britain was being undermined. However, Germany continued to trade with Italy and Mussolini ignored the sanctions therefore strengthening their relationship and weakening the league. In addition, Mussolini had also intervened in the Spanish civil war as he send 70000 troops to Spain to help support general Franco. Although he had failed he had sent them in order to weaken France who had a similar government as Spain and to have a naval base in the Balearic Islands to help promote Italian power in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Germany had also been strengthened as they had signed the Rome-berlin axis. Italy had also walked out of the League of Nations as Germany had done. It is also said that Mussolini had adopted the anti-Semitic policy in order to get closer to Germany and to make Italy more radical. As Mussolini became closer to Hitler he had changed his foreign policy towards Austria as he allowed Germany to increase its influence over Austria. In 1938 after the newly appointed chancellor Seyss-Inquart had invited Hitler to send troops, Hitler had attacked Austria and Mussolini had not rejected. Moreover, when a crisis broke out because Hitler had wanted to invade Czechoslovakia after he demanded that the Czech government allow the German speaking are of Czechoslovakia to unite with Germany. Therefore, it seemed that Britain and France would side with Czechoslovakia therefore causing war. Mussolini played the role of peacemaker and set up the Munich conference in 1938. Mussolini was also encouraged by Britain and FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s appeasement of Hitler to avoid aggression to start a more violent foreign policy. Mussolini had also been aware of him being the weak partner in the Italian-German relationship therefore this encouraged him to become violent to be more influential. He started by invading Albania in 1939. He then signed the pact of steel with Germany in 1939, which forced the two countries to support each other in case of war. This was an advantage for Germany who was likely to enter a war while Italy would be helped to expand.