Sunday, October 20, 2019

More Than, As Often As...These Are Comparative Adverbs

More Than, As Often As...These Are Comparative Adverbs Comparative adverbs express relative superiority or inferiority. Superiority, the idea that something is more or (greater) than something else, is expressed with plus in French. Inferiority, meaning that something is less than something else, is stated with moins. You can also express equality with comparatives, to state that something is as (great) as something else; in French, there are two possible equivalents to this: aussi and autant. French Comparatives 1. In French comparatives, you use stressed pronouns after que, rather than subject pronouns. For example, Il est plus grand que moi Hes taller than me.2. Comparative adverbs are most commonly used with adjectives, but you can also use them with adverbs, verbs, and nouns. These comparisons have slightly different constructions for each part of speech. Click in the summary table below for detailed lessons. Construction of  French Comparative Adverbs Comparisons with... Required word order Adjectives plus/moins/aussi + adjective + que + noun/pronoun plus/moins/aussi + adjective + que + adjective plus/moins/aussi + adjective + que + temporal adverb Adverbs plus/moins/aussi + adverb + que + noun/pronoun plus/moins/aussi + adverb + que + adverb plus/moins/aussi + adverb + que + temporal adverb Nouns plus/moins/autant de + noun + que + noun/pronoun plus/moins/autant de + noun + que + de + noun plus/moins/autant de + noun + que + temporal adverb Verbs verb + plus/moins/autant que + noun/pronoun verb + plus/moins/autant que + pronoun (+ ne) + verb verb + plus/moins/autant que + temporal adverb    When comparing with adjectives, use plus (adjective) que for superiority, moins (adjective) que for inferiority, and aussi (adjective) que for equality.Adjective: vert (green)  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus vert (greener)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins vert (less green)  Ã‚  Ã‚  aussi vert (as green)Like all adjectives, the adjectives used in comparatives have to agree with the nouns that they modify, and therefore have different forms for masculine, feminine, singular, and plural. The comparative itself, however, is invariable:Masculine singular  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus vert (greener)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins vert (less green)  Ã‚  Ã‚  aussi vert (as green)Feminine singular  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus verte (greener)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins verte (less green)  Ã‚  Ã‚  aussi verte (as green)Masculine plural  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus verts (greener)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins verts (less green)  Ã‚  Ã‚  aussi verts (as green)Feminine plural  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus vertes (greener)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins vertes (less green)  Ã‚  Ã‚  aussi vertes (as green)Note: The above i s true for all adjectives except bon and mauvais, which have special comparative forms for superiority. Types of Comparisons with Adjectives 1. Compare two nouns with one adjective.  Ã‚  Ã‚  David est plus fier que Jeanne.  Ã‚  Ã‚  David is prouder than Jeanne.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne est moins fià ¨re que David.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne is less proud than David.2. Compare one noun with two adjectives.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean est aussi riche que travailleur.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean is as rich as (he is) hard-working.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne est plus sympa quintelligente.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne is nicer than (she is) smart.3. Compare an adjective over time.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean est moins stricte quavant.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean is less strict than before.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne est aussi belle que toujours.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne is as beautiful as ever. Note: You can also make an implied comparison to any of the above by leaving out que.  Ã‚   Jean est plus grand.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean is taller.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne est moins fià ¨re.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne is less proud. When comparing with adverbs, use plus (adverb) que for superiority, moins (adverb) que for inferiority, and aussi (adverb) que for equality.Adverb: prudemment (carefully)  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus prudemment (more carefully)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins prudemment (less carefully)  Ã‚  Ã‚  aussi prudemment (as carefully)Note: The adverb bien has a special comparative form when expressing superiority. Types of Comparisons with Adverbs 1. Compare two nouns with one adverb.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean lit plus lentement que Luc.     Jean reads more slowly than Luc.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne à ©crit moins souvent que Luc.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne writes less often than Luc.2. Compare one noun with two adverbs.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean travaille aussi vite que gentiment.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean works as quickly as (he does) helpfully.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne à ©crit plus soigneusement quefficacement.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne writes more carefully than (she does) efficiently.3. Compare an adverb over time.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean mange plus poliment quavant.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean eats more politely than before.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne parle aussi fort que toujours.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne speaks as loudly as ever.Note: You can also make an implied comparison to any of the above by leaving out que.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean lit plus lentement.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean reads more slowly.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne à ©crit moins souvent.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne writes less often. When comparing with nouns, use plus de (noun) que for superiority, moins de (noun) que for inferiority, and autant de (noun) que for equality.Noun: livre (book)  Ã‚  Ã‚  plus de livres (more books)  Ã‚  Ã‚  moins de livres (fewer books)  Ã‚  Ã‚  autant de livres (as many books) Types of Comparisons with Nouns 1. Compare the amount of a noun between two subjects.      Jean veut autant damis que Luc.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean wants as many friends as Luc (has).  Ã‚  Ã‚  La France a plus de vin que lAllemagne.  Ã‚  Ã‚  France has more wine than Germany.2. Compare two nouns (note that the second noun must also be preceded by de).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean a plus dintelligence que de bon sens.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean has more brains than sense.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne a autant damis que dennemis.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne has as many friends as enemies.3. Compare a noun over time.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean connaà ®t moins de gens quavant.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean knows fewer people than (he did) before.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne a autant didà ©es que toujours.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne has as many ideas as ever.Note: You can also make an implied comparison to any of the above by leaving out que.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean veut autant damis.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean wants as many friends.  Ã‚  Ã‚  La France a plus de vin.  Ã‚  Ã‚  France has more wine. When comparing verbs, use (verb) plus que for superiority, (verb) moins que for inferiority, and (verb) autant que for equality.Verb: voyager (to travel)  Ã‚  Ã‚  voyager plus (to travel more)  Ã‚  Ã‚  voyager moins (to travel less)  Ã‚  Ã‚  voyager autant (to travel as much) Types of Comparisons with Verbs 1. Compare a verb between two subjects.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean travaille plus que Luc.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean works more than Luc (does).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne a à ©tudià © autant que Luc.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne studied as much as Luc (did).2. Compare two verbs.*  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean rit autant quil pleure.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean laughs as much as he cries.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne travaille plus quelle ne joue.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne works more than she plays.*When comparing two verbs, you need:  Ã‚  a) a pronoun referring back to the subject in front of the second verb  Ã‚  b) after plus and moins, the ne explà ©tif before the second verb3. Compare a verb over time.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean lit moins quavant.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean reads less than (he did) before.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne à ©tudie autant que toujours.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne studies as much as always.Note: You can also make an implied comparison to any of the above by leaving out que.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean travaille plus.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jean works more.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne a à ©tudià © autan t.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanne a à ©tudià © autant. Additional Resources French comparatives and superlativesIntroduction to comparativesComparatives with adjectivesComparatives with adverbsComparatives with nounsComparatives with verb

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.